Involves high concern for self and low concern for others. Many north Americans default to a competitive approach because it's ingrained in their culture. Some relationships use competition to enrich their interaction. Others use of competition signaled lack of appreciation and respect. Passive aggression occurs when a communicator expresses dissatisfaction in a disguised manner. Direct aggression uses character attacks, competence attacks, physical appearance attacks, maledictions, teasing, ridicule, threats, swearing, and nonverbal emblems.