FOREIGN POLICY 1485-1509
FOREIGN POLICY 1485-1509
Henry VII's successes in foreign policy
He set up several truces with potentially threatening countries, France 1485, and the Habsburg family 1487
Treaty of Medina el Campo 1489
England Spain decide to work together to defend their lands and not make any agreements with France without consulting each other first. This was strengthened by the engagement of Prince Arthur to Catherine of Aragon
In 1489 Henry passed an Act which limited the the export of english wool to and made it illegal for foreigners to buy wool for making into cloth on the continent. This meant the cloth industry in England could thrive
At the end of his reign, export of raw wool was down by 30%. This helped the English cloth industry to thrive
By 1509 there was 60% more cloth being exported than at the beginning of his reign
He agreed a truce with Scotland in 1486 and this was strengthened with the marriage of Henry's oldest daughter to James I in 1503
Navigation Acts (1485-6)
encouraged the use of English ships to carry goods rather than foreign ships
He managed to negotiate an agreement with the venetians that meant English merchants could trade with the wealthiest state in the west Mediterranean
He did this by instead agreeing to trade with Florence via their port Pisa and restricted wool exports to venice. The competition between city states meant that venice feared Florence would prosper at their expense so allowed english trade
Reason successes were limited
Breton Crisis 1488-92
Henry had failed to restore the English glories in Europe
His army lost all the main engagements in Brittany
Tensions rose when France moved to absorb Brittany.
Although Henry had increased customs duties compared to the hanseatic League, Spain, and Venice, English merchants were only trading small amounts
After the sudden death of his son, arthur (1503), and wife (1504), henry's foreign policies were at stake. His succession was now insecure
League of Cambrai 1508
Louis XII and Ferdinand came together with the archduke Charles and the pope against venice. England was left out of this.
However in some ways this was positive since the attention was now turned away from england and none of the other countries saw England as the enemy.
What appear to have been Henry's aims
In the first years of his reign Henry focused on securing acceptance for his right to rule from other leaders
Henry wanted security from invasion and recognition of the succession after his death
The accepted view of a national security was that the coastline across the channel should not be held by one power. Therefore Henry aimed to retain the regions of Brittany and Calais, especially brittany sonce they had sheltered him in his years of exile
He wanted to improve the country's strength and wealth by encouraging trade
To break up the stranglehold of the
He wanted to develop trade in the Mediterranean
Henry wanted to maintain peace and avoid foreign wars at all costs. He preferred negotiating than conflict.
Even in the Breton crisis, Henry only used military intervention when absolutely necessary and even then the smallest possible force.