Theory of knowledge (Evaluating Sources (Credibility of author (Expert,…
Theory of knowledge
Credibility of author
How to formulate a knowledge question
Human sciences study human behavior in a systematic way based on observation, and seek to discover laws and theories.
Problems in the Scientific Method
Questionnaires might be misleading
The observer effect
We cannot observe people's minds
Moral considerations might limit our willingness
Generalizations based on weird examples
Social phenomena are hard to measure
Human Sciences vs. Natural Sciiences
Natural scientists study objects and organisms that are unaware of their own existence, human scientists are concerned with organisms that are. In natural science, it is much easier to come up with a set of rules to explain the behavior of physical objects or animals. Whereas compiling a set of laws to account for the behavior of humans is, for the most part, virtually impossible. We all act in a different way, for different reasons.
2.Observer and what is being observed
Natural sciences ≠
Human sciences =
Science vs. Pseudo-Science
Only served to confirm beliefs. Pseudo-Science confirms
3.The observer effect
Problem with Induction
A branch of science which deals with the physical world
Art vs. Non-Art
For something to be a "work of art" needs to be man-made
The intentions of the artists
Something is a work of art if it is made by someone with the intention of evoking an AESTHETIC RESPONSE IN THE AUDIENCE (the branch of philosophy which studies beauty and the arts)
Simply intending something to be art is enough to magically transform it into art?
The quality of the work
A work of art should NOT be something that a person with no talent or training could have made.
A work of art should have some kind of intrinsic quality = beauty
A great deal of technical competence but lack originality = Kitsch
The response of spectators
Time reverses the judgement of the foolish crowd.
IGOR STRAVINSKY’S music for the ballet The Rite of Soring was booed off stage by audience.
PICASSO’S Les Demoiselles d’Avignon met with shock and outrage from his contemporaries.
The collection of works of art considered by scholars to be the most important and influential
Religious Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Ethics vs Morals
The rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group or culture.
Greek word "ethos" meaning "character"
Social system – External
Dependent on others for definition. They tend to be consistent within a certain context, but can vary between contexts.
Because society says it is the right thing to do.
Principles or habits with respect to right or wrong conduct. Can be seen as a personal compass of right and wrong.
Latin word "mos" meaning "custom"
Individual – Internal
Usually consistent, although can change if an individual’s beliefs change.
Because we believe in something being right or wrong.
Our values are determined by the society we grow up in and there are no universal values. Moral values are simply customs or conventions that vary from culture to culture.
Arguments for moral relativism
The diversity argument
The lack of foundations argument
Arguments against moral relativism
There are some core values that have been accepted by all cultures
We can justify our values
Expect people to justify their value-judgments and support them with reasons
A simple model
Nature or Nurture
Human beings are naturally selfish and incapable of meeting all moral values
It is true by definition that everyone is selfish
We should distinguish between self-regarding desires and other-regarding desires.
Human being are naturally selfish creatures who are programmed to pursue their own interests.
Empathy and altruism are as much a part of our biological inheritance as selfishness.
Hidden Benefits Argument
Receive hidden benefits (praise, gratitude, positive image of ourselves) by being nice to others. So as humans only do good will for their own sake, it still can be selfish
Some cases we might not want anything in return as we have another motive.
Fear of Punishment Argument
The man thing that keeps us in line and prevents our doing wrong is fear of punishment.
Not all good behavior is motivated by fear
Actions are judged right or wrong solely by their consequences. Right actions are those that produce the greatest balance of happiness over unhappiness. Each person's happiness is equally important.
Bentham and Mill
Divide Command Theory
Moral standards depend on God who is all-knowing. Any act that conforms to the law of God is right; an act that breaks God's law is wrong.
Emphasis is on moral rules and duty. If the rule behind the action cannot be generalized, then it is not a morally justifiable rule. Emphasis on autonomy, justice and kind acts. People treated as ends, never means.
Morals are internal to the acting person. Ethics is the result of reasoning; it seeks to produce good people who act well as a result of ethical behavior, and perhaps out of spontaneous goodness. It emphasizes living well and achieving excellence.
To what extend
Under what circumstances
What role does
Perceptions involves interpretation
Figure and ground
Perception is limited by our sense organs
Language influences perception
Illusions with other senses
Perception is limited by the way our brains work
Plato's allegory of the cave
sight, sound, taste, smell, proprioception, equilibroception,
Selectivity of perception
Emotions are affected by beliefs
Emotions shaped by culture
Emotion as an obstacle for knowledge
Negative bias (focus on negative)
Fundamental Attribution Error
Just World Hypothesis
Types of Intuitions
Natural and educated
Emotions as a source of knowledge
Source of values
Understand our emotions
Understand other's emotions
Innate or learned
10 year rule (10000 hours)
Deductive argument = Syllogism
Three terms each of which occur twice
Two premises and a conclusion
From general to particular
Conclusion follows logically from the premises
The premises are true and argument is valid
Incomplete argument in which one of the premises is assumed but not stated.
Tendency to think an argument is valid simply because you agree with the conclusion.
Invalid Syllogism (false)
From particular to general
Jump to conclusions based on insufficient evidence
Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Appeal to emotion
the fallacy fallacy
burden of proof
The gambler's fallacy
Appeal to authority
no true scotsman
begging the question
appeal to nature
the texas sharpshooter
Creative and open-ended
Other means(e.g. non-verbal)
Theories of meaning
efficient and economic
Language and Values
Emotionally laden language
Revealing and concealing
Language is universal
Types of knowledge
Knowledge by Description
Knowledge by Acquaintance
Personal Knowledge + Language
Knowledge and Belief
With no doubt (certainty)
By correspondence or coherence
3 theories of reality
Common sense realism
A vague belief
A well-supported belief
A belief beyond reasonable doubt