Corpus Callosum: The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
Split Brain: A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brains two hemispheres by cutting the fibers ( mainly those of the corpus callosum ) connecting them .
Information from the left half of your field of vision goes to your right hemisphere and vice versa. Which usually controls speech.
Data received by either hemisphere are quickly transmitted to the other across the corpus callosum. (Someone with a severed corpus callosum, the info sharing does not take place.)
When a person performs a perceptual task, brain waves, bloodlfow, and glucose reveal.
Consciousness: Our awareness of ourselves and our environment. This helps us act in our long term interests rather than merely seeking short term pleasure and avoiding pain.
Evolutionary psychologists speculate that consciousness must offer a reproductive advantage.
Cognitive Neuroscience:The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition includes perception, thinking, memory.
Based on your cortical activation, cognitive neuroscientists can now read minds.
Dual Processing: The principle that info is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) - series of x-rays, structure, not function
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) - glucose consumption, function, not structure
Electroencephalogram (EEG) - measures brainwaves, states of consciousness
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - magnetic fields/radio waves produce an image of the soft tissue, structure, not function
fMRI - bloodflow, both structure and function
Older Brain Structures
Pons - coordinate movement
Medula - life sustaining body functions (heartbeat, breathing)
Reticular Formation - arousal
Thalamus - sensory control center (routs sensory info to higher parts of the brain)
Amygdala - controls emotions (fear and aggression)
Hypothalamus - urges and rewards
Hippocampus - processes conscious memory
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - gathers info
Somatic - voluntary movement
Autonomic - subconscious
Sympathetic - arousing
Parasympathetic - calming
Central nervous system (CNS) - brain/spinal chord
Hormone secretion (through bloodstream)
Slower than NS, but lasts longer
Biology, Behavior, and Mind
The body is composed of cells
Among these are nerve cells that conduct electricity and "talk" to one another by sending chemical messages cross tiny gaps that separate them.
Specific brain systems serve specific functions (though not the functions Gall supposed)
We integrate information processed in these different brain systems to construct our experience of sights and sounds, meanings and memories, pain and passion.
Our adaptive brain is wired by our experiences.
Neuron consists of dendrite, axon, and myelin sheath.
Neuron stimulation causes a brief change in electrical charge. If strong enough, this produces depolarization and an action potential. Depolarization produces another action potential farther down the axon, opening the gates and allowing sodium to rush in.
Neuron's reaction is all or none, and meet between the synapse and finally go to the messengers being the neurotransmitters.
Acetylcholine (Muscle action), Dopamine (influence movement), Serotonin (Mood, hunger, sleep, arousal), Norepinephrine (Alertness/arousal), GABA (Inhibitory neurotransmitter), and Glutamate (Major excitatory neurotransmitter)
Genetics: The code for our lives
every cell nucleus in the body contains the master code for your whole body
You have 46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent
Chromosomes are composed of DNA
enviorments trigger gene activity
as we grow we select environments best suited to our natures
Identical Vs. Fraternal
Identical twins come from the same zygote
Fraternal twins come from different zygotes
Shared Genetics can translate to shared experiences
Strives to answer, "Do genes influence behavior?"
Most human traits are influenced by genes
genetic tests can reveal at-risk populations for many diseases
This can be applies to mental illnesses
using adoption and twin studies, behavior geneticists can mathematically estimate the heredibility of our traits
genetic influence can explain a certain percent of observed variation
heritable differences for individuals need not imply heritable differences of groups
Cerebral Cortex: The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the bodies ultimate control and info processing center.
Glial Cells: Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. They also may play a role in learning and thinking.
Structures of the Cerebral Cortex:
Frontal Lobe: Involved in speaking and muscle movements. Also in making plans and judgments.
Parietal Lobe: Top of head. Receives sensory input for touch and body position.
Occipital Lobe: Back of head. Includes areas that receive info primarily from the visual fields.
Temporal Lobe: Above ears. Includes the auditory areas, each receiving area from the opposite ear.
Motor Functions: Motor Cortex: An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
Sensory Functions: Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
Association Areas: Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking.
Brains Plasticity: the brains ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new plasticity based on experience.
Neurogenesis: the formation of new neurons.