Nine Assessments Presented by Robin Harness (Formative (Advantages: Often,…
Presented by Robin Harness
Assesses a student's strengths, weaknesses, knowledge and skills prior to instruction.
Advantages: Establishes a baseline for the class ; allows for group or individual differentiation; provides a frame of reference for later assessments
Disadvantages: -May cause teacher to make incorrect inferences about a child's ability level and skew expectations for that student.
Diagnostic Assessment Video
In my classes
Assessment prior to learning. There are many basic grammar, spelling and syntax quizzes that reflect readiness levels. I think an inventory of interests as well as a first week of warm-up prompt paragraphs can all serve as diagnostic indicators in secondary ELA classes. In collaborative classes with a high percentage of mainstreamed EIP students, there is additional diagnostic information on file for the teacher to consider.
Advantages: Often, formative assessments are observational and ungraded, which eliminates anxiety. Formative assessments are content acquisition opportunities and practice with teacher or peer assistance before the final tests. Teachers can check for understanding and modify teaching or differentiation if students struggling with the lesson. This is important for eventual mastery.
Disadvantages: Lesson may take much longer to finish. Teachers need training and experience to use formative assessments successfully. Historically, all assessments were summative. Poor classroom management can sabotage informal formative assessments because teachers may misread feedback from students that is based on behavior issues, not mastery of content.
Assesses a student's performance during instruction and usually occurs regularly throughout the instruction process
Assessment of learning. Socratic discussions, student led presentation of material, group work, projects that progressively show higher levels of cognition on Bloom’s scale.
In My Classroom formative assessments are constant and ongoing. I depend on verbal and written assignments and student interaction including Socratic discussions for the purpose of forming peer-to-peer or team groupings, or taking other whole class measures to remediate gaps in content acquisition.
Assessment of learning. In my district, there are standardized summative assessments conducted across the district to test knowledge and SWBAT objectives approximately every 9 weeks. These are not mandated, but strongly encouraged.
Advantages: Summative assessments they provide motivation for students to study and pay attention in class. :They also give great insight to teachers: if none of the children in a class score above a 2 or 3 on an AP exam, it is much more likely to be the result of poor or off-topic instruction than a class of students unable to complete the work.
Summative assessments measure a student's achievement at the end of the instruction.
Disadvantages: Many instructors are accused of “teaching to the test.” As a result, summative assessment is not always the most accurate reflection of learning.
In My Classroom I heavily prepare students for their required summative exams. I think other assessments are far more valuable.
Understanding Performance based Assessment
Advantages Using a student-centered design can promote student motivation. Can be used to assess transfer of skills and integration of content. Engages student in active learning. Encourages time on academics outside of class. Can promote student creativity. Usually the most valid way of assessing skill development
Disadvantages Usually the mostly costly approach. Time consuming and labor intensive to design and execute for faculty and students. Must be carefully designed if used to document mastery of student learning outcomes. Grades can be more subjective. Requires careful training of raters.
Assessment of learning.Examples of these measurements are open-ended questions, written compositions, oral presentations, projects, experiments, and portfolios of student work.
In My Classroom, performance based assessments are preferred over most others. 21st century competencies are encouraged by voice and choice, collaboration and often tech in performance based assessments.
Performance-based assessment measures students' ability to apply the skills and knowledge learned from a unit or units of study. It challenges students to use their higher-order thinking skills to create a product or complete a process
Discussion of High Stakes Testing
Advantages: High-stakes test results can be used to help teachers create a learning plan based on your kid's needs—helping her in the long run. Look at your child's test results as a tool for progress, not as a judgment on ability or intelligence. Data from statewide testing is almost always publicly available.
Assessment of learning. These are often tests that occur in a structured environment controlled by the administration. Test scores reflect on the school, the teacher, but often not the student in any significant way. SAT, PSAT, and AP Tests are the exception because these tests have serious consequences for college bound students.
In My Classroom and district, the Smarter Balance test has been used for 3 years with marginal success. This test is a branching test that shuts down when the student misses a certain amount of questions; the intention is to lesson anxiety, however with appx 50% of students scoring below proficient, district officials may discontinue this test.
A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts. Its purpose is to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers.
Disadvantages: High stakes exams can cause anxiety, but yearly testing and frequent practice tests can help kids improve their test-taking abilities over time. High-stakes tests cause any subject that isn't math or language arts to be pushed out of the classroom. Pressure on teachers can clamp down on creativity and innovation.
One ELA teacher's Self Assessment Methods
In My Classroom self assessment is graded on mindfulness, honesty, and introspection. When being honest with one’s self created the highest score, the process is low stakes and an opportunity for integrity to be the focus.
Advantages: Self assessment can provide the teacher with very practical and functional information regarding what students want to learn, progress they have made, difficulties, favorite activities, and suggestions or improvements the teacher can implement.
Self assessment demands students think about their own learning progress and problems and find ways to improve. Self- assessment can be an efficient formative tool.
Self Assessment requires students to reflect on their own work and judge how well they have performed in relation to the assessment criteria. The focus is to provide opportunities for them to be able to identify what constitutes a good (or poor!) piece of work
Disadvantages: Some students lack the maturity to self-assess because they bring no seriousness or importance to the process; therefore they tend to give themselves a higher grade, this skews the final result. Self-assessment only works if students have been trained and have a rubric to follow.
Assessment for learning. Self assessment may be self grading then correcting wrong answers on a quiz, it can be a reflection on a completed exercise. Assessment becomes relevant when students buy in to the process. Students taking an active role in developing the scoring criteria, self-evaluation, and goal setting, more readily accept the assessment as valid and useful.
Portfolio is a collection of student work that has been selected and organized to show student learning progress or students best work.
Disadvantages: Lack of a standard for a portfolio, an inherent bias based on individual assessments and a lack of access to the larger portion of the student population of a campus. Portfolios are usually a collection of a student's work online, including papers, writing and exercises that were assigned as coursework
Assessment of learning: Portfolios are an excellent summative assessment in high school English. In my classroom, portfolios can be digital or collected in a a bound folder.Parents especially enjoy portfolio collections and for college bound students, portfolios may be submitted as part of an admission process or scholarship application.
Advantages: They require students to continuously reflect and perform self-evaluations of their work. They are individualized and promote communication
Using Student Portfolios for Assessment
Advantages: Connects students with real life(life is not measured with multiple choice). Combines teaching, learning and assessment to promote student learning and engagement.
Disadvantages: Provides subjective scoring (especially compared to standardized assessment). Limits skills and knowledge assessed.
Authentic assessment is
an approach to measure student performance in a direct, relevant way to see if the learning objectives were met.
Assessment of learning. Authentic learning is associated with "just in time" learning. The student learns what they need when they need it. This type of learning is often ties to PBL or maker spaces.
Authentic Assessment: the school of the future
Peer assessment is a collaborative learning technique, students evaluate their peers’ work and have their work evaluated by peers. Often used as a learning tool.
Best Practices For Peer Assessment
Advantages: external motivator to work harder and perform better. Students care what their peers think of them. Learners’ self-perceived academic competence and self-esteem are more powerfully affected by their peers’ evaluation than by their teacher’s. Functions as a collaborative learning experience, especially when the assessor is expected to give formative and qualitative feedback. When assessor and assessed are encouraged to discuss differences in opinions and look for implications and solutions together.
Disadvantages: Students generally initially question the ability of peers to assess their work, and the value of the feedback received. Students tend to view themselves and their peers as too inexperienced to be making accurate and fair assessments of their work. This is especially true when students are receiving grades based on peer feedback
Assessment for learning. In high school, peer assessment can be as simple as swapping quizzes or as involved as using a rubric review a project or oral presentation. Peer assessment can lead to peer tutoring with has been proven as an effective method of instruction.
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