Explain viewpoints Behaviorism (What types of learning are best explained…
Explain viewpoints Behaviorism
Role Of Memory
:star: The role of memory is not addressed by behaviorist
:star: Memory /mind= black box.
What is black box :question:
:star: The use of periodic practices serves to maintain readiness learners to respond
:star:Memory is hard-wiring of repeated experience where reward and punishment are most influntial
:star:Leaning is a function of stimuli and response, not memory
:star:Ignoring the possibility of thought process occurring in the mind
How does transfer occur?
:star:Meaning of transfer:
The application of learned knowledge in new ways or situations, as well as how prior learning affects new learning.
:star:Situations involving identical or similar features allow behaviors to transfer across common elements.
:star:For example, the student who has learned to recognize
and classify elm trees demonstrates transfer when (s)he classifi es
maple trees using the same process. The similarities between the elm and
maple trees allow the learner to apply the previous elm tree classifi cation
learning experience to the maple tree classifi cation task.
Which factors influence learning ?
You can refer here
:star: Arrangement of stimuli
:star: Reward and punishment
:star:Consequences within the enviroment :
How does learning occur?
How Does Learning Occur?
:star: Contends that responses that are followed by reinforcement are more likely to recur in the future
:star: Concern is how the association between the stimulus and response is made, strengthened and maintain
:star: Key element :
Assoaciated between stimulus and response
:star: As example, 2+4 (stimulus) = 6 (proper answer is the response)
:star: Learning is accomplished when a proper response is demonstrated following the presentation of a specific environmental stimulus.
:star: Learning occur with changes in either the form or frequency of observable performance
:star: Learning triggered by stimuli
What types of learning are best explained by this position? (The types of learning activities that might be prescribed).
:star:Behaviorists would focus on the design of the environment to optimize the transfer.
:star:Cannot adequately explain the acquisition of higher level skills or those that require a greater depth of processing (e.g language development, problem solving, inference generating, critical thinking)
:star:The actual goal of instruction for both of these viewpoints is often the same: to communicate or transfer knowledge to the students in the most efficient, effective manner possible (Bednar et al., 1991).
:star:Reliable and effective in facilitating learning that involves:
:star:Two techniques used by both camps in achieving this eff ectiveness and efficiency of knowledge transfer are simplification and standardization.
:star: Strategies that build and strengthening S-R associations:
:star:For example, trainees attending a workshop on effective management skills would be presented with information that is “sized” and “chunked” in such a way that they can assimilate and/or accommodate the new information as quickly and as easily as possible.
Mind Map 1 :