Unit 3: Westward Expansion
Belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territoty.
A series of agreements passed by congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power between slave states.
Indian Removal Act 1830:
That forced Native American peoples east of the Mississippie to move to lands in the west.
Name applied to the Kansas territory in the years before the civil war, when the territoty was a battleground between proslavery.
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854:
A lawa, enacted in 1854, that established the territories oh Kansas and Nebraska and gave their residents the right.
Fugitive Slave Act:
A law enacted as part of the compromise of 1850, designed to ensure that escaped slaves would be returned into bondage.
A system in which the residents vote to decide an issue.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo:
The treaty 1848 ending the US war with Mexico, in which Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the United States.
-Brought to America by the British in the 16th century.
-It remained an American Institution after the Revolutionary War.
Europe Exports: Clothes, Rum, and Manufactured Goods from Europe.
Africa Exports: Slaves
Sugar, Tabacco, Cotton
How many slaves?
Meaning 2 million slaves died on the trip.
Bodies would be thrown overboard
Slavery in the United States
Early America was an Agrarian society, dependent on slaves.
New Technology changed America, Railroads, Steel Mills, Machines, Oil, etc. (Mostly developed in the North.)
Treaty of Guadalupe HIdalgo 1848
Officially ends the Mexican-American War
Mexico gives New Mexico and California to America
Gadsden Purchase 1853
United States wants this land for railroads
Us pays Mexico $10 million for all territory along the Gila Ridge
Annexation of Texas
Texas and the United States agreed to make Texas the 28 state in 1845
Keeping slavery legal was a must
Texas declared independence from Mexico in 1838
Westward Expansion Through Agrarian America
It was Americas's Destiny
Valves of American People
Indian Removal Act 1830
Series of Treaties that moved the native Americans further west
Tribes who did not leave, were froced to leave by the US Army
Passed by President Andrew Jackson
The plains Wars
Red River War
U.S military campaign created to rid the Southern plains of Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho in 1874. Buffalo hunters tresspassed on land granted to Indians--> Native food supply lost.
Battles of Littler Big Horn
1876, Sioux of northern plains- Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana territories- powerfully resisted white expansion. 1866, Sioux warriors slaughtered more then 80 soldiers under captain W.J. Fetterman. War ended in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868.
Sand Creek Massacre
1864, battle (Cheyenne vs. Black Kettle). while black kettle was trying to surrender chivingtons men slaughtered between 150 and 500 people- largely women and children.
1890, Indian police officers tried to arrest Sitting Bull, he hesitated, and the officers shot and killed him. about 120 men and 230 women ahnd children surrendered and were rounded up at a creek called wounded knee. as the were disarmed someone fired a shot, and more than 200 Sioux were killed. last major episode of the indian wars.
Consecuences of Indian Removal Act 1830
Forever divides native Amreican's and United States
Leads to war
Directly leads to the Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears