Racial and Ethnic Politics
Busing - The mandated movement of schoolchildren between racially homogeneous neighbourhoods - white suburbs and black inner cities - to create racially mixed schools in all neighbourhoods.
Quotas - A set-aside programme to benefit previously disadvantaged minorities in such areas as higher education and employment. A certain percentage - quota - of places is reserved for people of the previously disadvantaged group. The Supreme Court found quotas unconstitutional in a number of decisions during the 1980s and 90s.
Affirmative Action - A programme that entails giving those members of a previously disadvantaged minority group a head start in such areas as higher education and employment. The term is often regarded as being synonymous with "positive discrimination". Affirmative Action is now required by law for all federal government agencies and for those organisations in receipt of federal funds.