Church Reform and the Crusades (The Age of Faith (Problems in the Church…
Church Reform and the Crusades
The Age of Faith
Problems in the Church
Problems with Religious Leaders
Some popes had questionable morals
Some bishops and abbots cared more about their positions as feudal leaders and less about their duties as spiritual leaders
Some priests were illiterate; could not read their prayers easily
Reformers Distressed by 3 Main Issues
Many village priests were married and had families
Bishops sold positions in the church,
Using the practice of lay investiture
What was the major problem reformers objected to in the Church?
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Reform and Church Organization
Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory IIV enforced church laws against simony and marriage of priests
The popes that followed Pope Leo and Gregory reorganized the church to continue reforming
In the 1100's and 1200's, the Church was restructured to resemble a kingdom
Pope was at the head of the Church
The pope's group of advisers was called the Papal Curia, and they also acted as a court
Developed canon law
What branches in the U.S. government did the Papal Curia resemble?
It most closely resembles the judicial branch because they acted as a court and interpret the canon laws
The Church collected taxes in the form of tithes
New Religious Orders
In the 1200's, the traveled to spread the ideas of the Church
Took vows of chastity, poverty and obedience (Similar to Monks)
Did not live apart from the world in monasteries (Different than Monks)
Owned nothing and lived by begging
A Spanish priest, Dominic founded the Dominicans; one of the earliest orders of friars
Many Dominicans were scholars because Dominic emphasized the importance of study
Francis of Assi founded an Italian order of friars
Francis treated all creatures as if they were his spiritual brothers and sisters
Women Play An Important Role
In 1212, a women named Clare and her friend Francis of Assi founded the Franciscan order for women
In 1147, Hildegard of Bingen founded a Benedictine convent
Crusades - Holy Wars
Byzantine Emperor asked Robert, Count of Flanders and Pope Urban II for help to keep the Turks out of their land.
Goals and Economic Advantages of the Crusades:
Muslims controlled the Holy Land and threatened to take over Constantinople.
Pope wanted to regain Holy Land to reunite
Kings and Priests wanted to get rid of irritating knights
Younger sons of families wanted adventure and land for themselves.
Merchants made a lot of money by loaning out their boats for lots of money to the armies.
The First Crusade
Pope Urban got thousands of men to go and fight in the crusades in defense of Christianity and with the guarantee that they'd get into Heaven.
1097 - armies from France, Bohemia, Germany, England, Scotland, Italy, and Spain got to Constantinople.
They armies were not prepared for battle at all. They argued and didn't know how to survive in the land for a long time.
1099 - Army of 12,000 arrive at Jerusalem and capture the city.
They were only able to get a small strip of land on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and created four feudal states ruled by nobles.
The Second Crusade
1144 - Edessa was taken by the Turks
Second Crusade was made to recapture Edessa, but they failed.
1187 - Jerusalem is captured by the Kurdish, Muslim leader Saladin.
The Third Crusade
Philip II (France), Frederick I (Germany), and Richard the Lion-Hearted (England) led the third crusade.
Frederick I drowned on the journey to the crusade.
Richard and Saladin were equal warriors and equal enemies.
1192 - Richard and Saladin made a truce after many battles were lost.
Agreement: Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control but Saladin had to allow unarmed, Christian pilgrims to visit the Holy City
There were many different crusades because the Holy City kept getting captured by different groups so there was a constant power struggle between people.
Why did they eventually decide to make a truce instead of continuing to fight?
Reasoning for Truce
More Info on the Second Crusade
How come the different armies weren't prepared for battle?
The Crusading Spirit Dwindles
The Children's Crusade
Two different crusade movements with children
France, lead by Stephen of Cloyes (30,000)
Died from cold, starvation, or drowned. Some sold into slavery.
Germany, lead by Nicholas of Cologne (20,000)
Died crossing the Alps
Survivors eventually met the Pope who told them to go home
Only 2,000 made it home, others traveled to the Holy Land and disappeared
Children Crusade Encyclopedia
A Spanish Crusade
The Spanish tried for a long time to get the Muslims out of Spain
By 1492 the Muslims were gone
Reconquista - drive out the Muslims
Inquisition - a court held by the Church to suppress heresy
Heretics - people whose religious beliefs differed from the teachings of the Church
Many Muslims and Jews said that they converted to Christianity
Suspected of being heresy
In 1492, monarchs expelled all practicing Jews and Muslims from Spain
Suspected heresy were questioned for weeks and tortured
If they confessed they were burned at the stake
Why did many Spanish people of other faiths convert to Christianity?
Answer - They converted because they were scared to get tutored for being heretics.
Many crusades to get the Holy Land continued to fail
What goal united the Children's and Spanish Crusade?
Answer - To push Muslims out and unify under Christianity
Cathedrals-Cities of God
Most people worshipped in small churches near their homes
Larger cathedrals were built in city areas
Cathedral was viewed as representation of the City of God
City was decorated with all the richness the Christians had to offer
Churches were built in Romanesque style between 800 and 1100
Round arches, thick roofs, thick walls and pillars. They had tiny windows in the walls to let in light.
How thick were the walls?
A New Style of Church Architecture
New spirit in church and access to more money fueled the building of churches in other European countires
In 1100s, a new style called Gothic was formed
Gothic comes from Germanic tribe called Goths
They were less gloomy and heavy like the Romanesque and reached toward heaven. They had large glass stained windows
There also was wood carvings, sculptures, and stained glass.
They were meant to inspire worshippers with the magnificence of God
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The Effects of the Crusades
Positive Impact of the Crusades
The call to the Holy Land encouraged thousands of people to leave their homes
The people that stayed home were able to operate shops and inns and manage their estates
European merchants expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia
The trade benefited both Christians and Muslims
Q: In what way did the crusades benefit people of all faiths?
A: It led to increased trade between Europe and Southwest Asia.
Negative Impact of the Crusades
The failure of later Crusades lessened the power of the pope
The Crusades weakened the feudal nobility and increased the power of kings
For Muslims, the intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians in the Holy Land left behind a bitterness and hatred
Q: How did the failure of later crusades weaken the power of the Pope?
A: It weakened feudal nobility and increased the power of the kings. It also shook people’s faith which resulted in even more power for kings.
Effects of Crusades
Values and Beliefs