Church Reform and the Crusades (The Crusades (What were the economic…
Church Reform and the Crusades
Vikings Plundered monasteries in Western Eroupe between 1000-1500 and the old way of learning was destroyed and allowed for a new belief to seep into Eroupe.
Age of Faith
Poblems in the church
The priest were very illiterate and could barely read there prayers.
Reform Church Organization
Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory both enforced the laws over married priest
In 1100s The church was restructured to resemble a kingdom with the pope as the king and its advisors witch were called Papal Curia and acted as the popes court.
What Was wrong with the old system?
Developed a cannon law to decided: Marriage, divorce, inheritance.
Churched collected taxes through the structure of thieves, witch consumed 1/10 of a presents income.
The church use this money to help care for the sick and poor and the church ran and payed for most of the hospitals in Europe.
New Religious orders
1200s wondering friars traveled the land attempting to spread the churches beliefs and message.
Friars Owned nothing all all they did was preach to poor in big cuties and travel to the church.
Francis of Assisi from Italy founded a friars and traveled the Europe treating animals just the same as Spiritual brothers and sisters.
In 1212 women joined these Friars and a famous women named Clare and her friend founded the first women friars and spread the word of god in Germany.
Also Lived in poverty and lived for nothing more that travaling and singing songs of god.
Some of the popes men had questionable morals and cared more about there positions than there religious duties.
Many Village priest were married and had families witch was against church rulings. Bishops sold positions to the church for simony.
Kings appointed church bishops and the church believed that only the church should appoint bishops.
Cathedrals--Cities of God
Most people worshiped in small churches
Cathedrals are large churches in cities
viewed as the representation of the City of God
Why were they viewed this way?
Decorated with all the richness people could offer
between 800-1100 churches were built the Romanesque way
thick walls and pillars
walls had tiny windows for light
A new style of Church Architecture
New spirits and more money helped fuel the building of churches
Gothic style of architecture evolved in the early 1100's
Compared to Romanesque buildings they were very tall, had huge windows, lots of sculpture, wood carvings, and stained glass
These were meant to inspire the worshiper
These inspired the worshiper because of the elegant things in the church. All of the sculptures, wood carvings, and stained glass was supposed to make the worshipers feel welcomed and comfortable
Gothic cathedrals were built in many towns throughout France
Nearly 500 Gothic churches were built between 1170-1270
The building of gothic cathedrals really shows how important people's religious beliefs were because of how fancy they were. People put so much time and effort into building these that it really shows how much people care.
Comes from a Germanic tribe called "Goths"
The ceiling of the Cathedral of Notre Dame was more than 100 ft tall
Chartres, Reims, Amiens, and Beauvais built taller cathedrals
What does the height of the Cathedral have to do with anything?
In 1093 the Byzantine emperor asked the Count of Flanders for help against the Muslim Turks as they were threatening to capture the capitol.
He then called for a Crusade or "holy war"
Muslims controlled Palestine and were threatening Constantinople & the emperor tried to get other Christians to stop the Muslim attacks.
The pope wanted to take Palestine back and reunite the split Christendom.
The Church and the kings used the Crusades to get rid of knights that fought amongst themselves
Younger sons who were looking for adventure, land, and social position fought instead of elder sons (who would inherit their father’s land)
What were the economic advantages of the crusades?
The First and Second Crusades
There was a religious surge during the Crusades as those who died in battle were guaranteed to go to heaven.
They would wear red crosses and cry “God wills it!”
The Crusaders were not prepared for the battle because they didn’t know the geography, climate, or culture of Palestine and had no plan or leader
Soon an army of 12,000 captures the city despite being the than 1/4 of the original army
They were able to win a meager yet important strip of land
The Crusaders were vulnerable to Muslim attack and eventually lost the land to the Turks
During the Second Crusade they tried to win it back but were unable
Conflict & Religion
The Third Crusade
Led by Philip II of France, Frederick I of Germany and Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, they once again tried to recapture Jerusalem.
Philip argued with Richard and left, Barbarossa drowned, and Richard was left on his own.
After many battles, Richard and Saladin agreed to a truce in 1192
Jerusalem remained in Muslim control but Christian pilgrim could visit freely
Why were there multiple crusades lasting many years?
They were constantly fighting over Jerusalem in many different crusades
Jerusalem fell to a Kurdish warrior and the Muslim leader Saladin
The siege of Jerusalem
The Crusades brought in more money for the traders
Merchants would give out loans and lease ships for high prices to make money. They tried to win control over the trade routes that Muslim traders had.
More on the Crusades...
The Crusading Spirit Dwindles
The Fourth Crusade to capture Jerusalem failed
Why did the Fourth Crusade fail?
Knights didn't reach the Holy Land, ended up looting Constantinople
Four more attempts to free the holy land also failed
No attempts made conquered much land
The Children's Crusade
Took place in 1212
Thousands of children set out to conquer Jerusalem
One group was led by a 12 year old, 30,000 children under 18 joined him
They were only armed with the belief that God would give them Jerusalem
Many children died from cold and starvation, and some drowned or were sold to slavery
In Germany, Nicholas gathered about 20,000 children and young adults
Began marching towards Rome
Thousands died in the cold and treacherous crossing of the Alps
Those who survived finally did meet the pope
He told them to go home and wait til they are older
About 2,000 survived the return trip to Germany
A few boarded a ship for the Holy Land and were never heard of again
Where do you think the missing children ended up?
Why did children set out on Crusades?
A Spanish Crusade
Muslims controlled most of the country until the 1100's
Reconquista: A long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain
By the late 1400's the Muslims held only the tiny kingdom of Granada, finally fell to a Christian army, the Spanish monarchs
Inquisition: Used to unify Isabella and Ferdinand's country under Christianity
A court hed by the church to supress heresy
Heretics were people whose religious beliefs differed from the teachings of the Church
Many Jews and Muslims in Spain converted to Christianity during the late 1400's
A person subjected of heresy might be questioned for weeks and even tortured. Once subjects confessed, they were often burnt at the stake
Timeline of the Crusades and Wars
The Holy Land
The Effects of the Crusades
The Crusades are a forceful example of the power of the Church during the medieval period
The call to go to the Holy Land encouraged thousands to leave their homes and travel to far away lands
Those who stayed home, especially women, had a chance to manage affairs on the estates
Also had the chance to operate shops and inns
European merchants expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia
Some goods imported from Southwest Asia included spices, fruits, and cloth
Benefited both the Christians and Muslims
In what way did the crusades benefit people of all faiths?
The failure of later Crusades also lessened power of the pope
Increased the power of the Kings
Fall of the Constantinople empire weakened the Byzantine empire
The intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians in the Holy Land left behind a legacy of biterness and hatred
Relations with the Muslim leadership worsened
The Crusades were a time of increased persecution
The Crusades grew out of religious fervor, feudalism, and chivalry. Came together with explosive energy,
More on the Crusades
How did the failure of later crusades weaken the power of the Pope?