Church Reform and the Crusades (The Crusading Spirit Dwindles (A Spanish…
Church Reform and the Crusades
How did the architecture of Gothic cathedrals inspire reverence for God?
New style of Church Architecture
In the early 1100s a style of architecture know as Gothic evolved throughout medieval Europe.
Gothic comes from a Germanic tribe named the Goths
Gothic cathedrals thrust upwards as if reaching toward heaven
What does the construction of Gothic cathedrals tell us about people's religious beliefs?
People's beliefs due to Gothic cathedrals
Light streamed in though huge stained glass windows
Gothic cathedrals were built in France and Paris
Historyof Gothic cathedrals
The Cathedral of Noter Dame rose to more than 100 feet
Nearly 500 Gothic churches were built between 1170 and 1270
Large churches were call cathedrals.
From about 800 - 1100 churches were built with a Romanesque style
These churches had round arches and a heavy roof held up by thick walls and pillars, the thick walls had tiny windows that let in little light.
Cathedrals were viewed as the representations of the City of God
Christians would decorate with all the riches they could offer
The Crusading Spirit Dwindles
More about the Fourth Crusade
A Spanish Crusade
Why did many Spanish people of different faiths convert to Christianity?
Because the Spanish Monarchs used inquisition
If they were suspected they could be tortured or questioned, and when they confessed they were burned
Many people converted to Christianity but were suspected to be converts of heretics
: court held by the Church to suppress heretics (people who had different beliefs than the Church)
The Spanish monarchs wanted to gain power and unify their country under Christianity
Grenada fell to the Christian army of the Spanish monarchs
By the 1400s, the Muslims only controlled Granada
: effort made by the Spanish to drive Muslims out of Spain
The Children's Crusade
What goal united the Spanish and Children's crusades?
They wanted to push out the Muslims and unify Christianity
Nicholas of Cologne led a group, and 20,000 children joined him
Only few returned to Germany alive
The pope told them to go home
Thousands died but the ones that survived met the pope
They marched to Rome
Many died on their way
Believed that God would give them Jerusalem
Stephen of Cloyes led one group, and 30,000 children joined him
Thousands of children tried to conquer Jerusalem
Took place in 1212
None of these attempts conquered much land
The Crusaders goal was to weaken Muslim forces before going to the Holy Land
Started marching to Egypt instead of the Holy Land
Four more Crusades to free the holy land were unsuccessful
The Fourth Crusade failed, and they ended up looting Constantinople
Summary of the Crusades
Why did the multiple Crusades last many years?
Crusades - History.com
There were a multitude of reasons: lack of knowledge of the climate, equal army strength, leadership quarrels, and fortress cities that gave the crusading knights a run for their money.
The Third Crusade
Many battles take place, both sides win and lose
1192 - Richard and Saladin sign a peace treaty, Jerusalem remains under Muslim control
Crusaders lead by Richard the Lionheart after Philip left and Barbarossa drowned
Muslims lead by Saladin
The Second Crusade
1144 - Jerusalem was recaptured by the Muslims
A second crusade was organized, but ended in failure
The First Crusade
1097, three armies gather outside of Constantinople
Nationalities that gathered included: French, Bohemians, Germans, and Spaniards
Tensions on the rise
Arguing nobles are unable to choose a leader, army disintegrates to 1/4 original size
1099 - Smaller army still march on Jerusalem
One month later, Jerusalem is captured
Goals of the Crusades
Social Goals of the Crusades - Newberry
Gain Church's favor and increase ruler's popularity among the poor
What were the economic goals of the Crusades?
By seizing the trade routes in the Middle East, Europe would be connected to China and their technology and idea that could be shared would help bring Europe up to modern times
Get key trade routes in the Middle East
Expand Empire to the Middle East
Reclaim the Holy Land and reunite Christians
The Crusades are a example of the churches power during the medieval period
Thousands left their homes to go fight to reclaim the holy land
Mostly women stayed home to manage the affairs of the estate
European Merchants expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia imported spices, fruits, and cloth. This benefited Christians and Muslims
Failure of later Crusades weakened the popes power
It also weakened feudal nobility and increased the power of kings
Thousands of knights and other participants lost their lives and fortunes
How did the failure of later crusades weaken the power of the pope?
Weakening the Pope
The fall of Constantinople weakened the Byzantine Empire
The Christians ruthlessness left a legacy of bitterness and hatred which continues to today
In what way did the crusades benefit people of all faiths?
Crusades grew out of religious fervor, feudalism and chivalry which came together with explosive energy.
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The Age of Faith
Monasteries created spiritual revival
Cluny monastery in 910 was very important
Pope restored and expanded the Church's authority
Conflict: Problems in The Church
Important members of the Church were breaking sacred rules
Kings stated using lay investiture
Bishops used simony
Q. What was the major problem reformers objected to in the church?
A. Simony and Law Investiture
Priests were getting married and having children
Popes were no longer honorable
Change: Reform and Church Organization
Pope Leo and Gregory enforced laws against simony and marriage of priests
In 1100-1200s the Church was restructured to look like a kingdom again
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Some priests were nearly illiterate
Could not read prayer
New religious orders were established
Wanted to return to basic Christian principles
Cathedrals - Cities of Gods
Effects of the Crusades
Supply/Demand, Trade, Diffusion, & Isolation
Leadership & Authority