īkṣatyadhikaraṇa (Siddhantin - It denotes Brahman. Reasons - (Other…
Number of sutras - 8 (1.1.5 to 1.1.12)
Object of this Adhikaraṇa
What is declared to be the cause of the Universe in the Vedanta is not Prakrti or primordial matter known by Inference, but it is Brahman, the omniscient and omnipotent Being known by verbal testimony only.
The cause of the world is spoken of Sat in Chandogya Upanishad
The word Sat means existence
Does this word Existence denote -
Pradhana / Prakrti of the Sankhyas ?
Or does it denote the Brahman ?
Prima facie view - It denotes
Whatever thing and whatever general nature thereof exist in the condition of a cause, that same thing and that same nature thereof have to exist in the condition of an effect
The world which is a produced effect and is hence made up of the qualities Sattva, rajas and tamas cannot therefore have the non-material 'qualityless' Brahman for its cause
If the undifferentiated Pradhana is not taken to be the cause of the world, it is impossible to understand how, by knowing a certain single thing, all things become known, as it is declared in the scripture;
It is impossible to understand why the statement relating to the cause of the world is, as given in the Chandogya Upanishad, in the form of a proposition and an illustration.
The activity of 'seeing' and 'thinking' has to be interpreted figuratively
Like the scriptural passages, 'The Fire thinks'. Thus it is applicable to Pradhana also.
Siddhantin - It denotes
. Reasons -
(Sutra 1.1.5) Existence spoken of as the cause of the world cannot be Pradhana, because the activity of seeing and thinking is predicated in relation to it.
There is no doubt that the cause has to be in natural conformity with the effect.
The Highest Person who owns all the intelligent and the non-intelligent things in their subtle state as His body is certainly in natural conformity with all produced effects
Thus it is possible to understand how, by knowing a certain single thing, all things become known, as it is declared in the scripture;
By knowing The Highest Person who owns all the intelligent and the non-intelligent things in their subtle state, the effect , the Universe can be known.
(Sutra 1.1.6) The activity of 'seeing' in relation to 'Sat' is not to be interpreted figuratively since Sat is spoken of as the Atman.
The Chandogya Upanishad (6-8,7) has in view the world which is made up of intelligent and non-intelligent things and points out that Sat is the Atman or the Self and surely the non-intelligent Pradhana cannot be the intelligent Atman.
The omniscient Brahman alone can be the intelligent Atman and can also see and think.
Other reasons supporting Siddhantin's point -
(Sutra 1-1-7) It is taught in the context that he who is firmly devoted to that Sat obtains final release as a result of his devotion.
What one worships here on earth determines what one attains finally.
To attain the Pradhana is not to obtain moksha but it is to get into the bondage of samsara.
The Vedanta is not so unkind as to impel us to get into this bondage.
(Sutra 1-1-8) Scriptures do not teach that One has to discard Sat in order to obtain release.
Svetaketu, who was desirous of attaining moksha is taught in the context that he is the same as the Sat, which certainly cannot mean that he was mere matter.
If he were the same as matter, he could obtain no moksha and the idea of his being the same as Sat would deserve to be discarded.
But it is not taught that it is to be discarded.
(Sutra 1-1-9) If Sat were Pradhana, there would be be contradiction that 'By knowing a certain single thing, all things become known.'
Non intelligent matter cannot give rise to the intelligent individual souls and cannot be their cause, hence by knowing it all things cannot become known.
(Sutra 1-1-10) In deep sleep state, the sleeping person is in union with the 'Sat'
While asleep he withdraws into his own cauase and is also absorbed into his own cause.
Here, 'Sat' is the cause into which its effect, namely, the individual self, withdraws
Non intelligent Pradhana cannot be the cause of the individual self.
Until final release, the individual self is associated with names and forms
In moksha and deep sleep, he is embraced by the Brahman and gives up names and forms.
Thus, he withdraws into his own cause and Sat has therefore to be the Brahman.
(Sutra 1-1-11) Because 'Sat' mentioned here as the cause must have the same meaning as whatever is elsewhere in the Scripture declared to be the world's cause.
(Sutra 1-1-12) More than all, it is actually revealed in the Chandogya Upanishad that Supreme Self is the cause of the Universe and that the causal 'Sat' cannot at all mean in consequence any thing other than that Supreme Self.
As a result, the attributeless Brahman as told by Advaitins is also not right.
Brahman is associated with the real attribute of 'seeing' and His character as a witness therefore cannot be unreal.
'Seeing' and 'thinking' Brahman must be an intelligent being and to be an intelligent being is to possess the quality of intelligence.
To be devoid of this quality of intelligence is same as the non-intelligent Pradhana, which surely Brahman is not.
In the same way in which Brahman cannot be attributeless, He cannot be mere luminosity or intelligence.
Luminosity or intelligence is that which makes itself and other things fit to be realised by a cognising mind.
A thing devoid of all attributes cannot possess this capacity.
To admit that Brahman has such a capacity (on account of it being stated in the Scriptures) is same as to admit that He is none other than the all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-good God.