The effect of internal migration on local labour markets (AIM (why…
The effect of internal migration on local labour markets
Great Depression is an охерительный период for looking at labour markets
internal migration -> big issue
why so much migration
Who's the author :question:
why migrants are disliked traditionally
BUT some studies show no bid effect on wages
most research is on international migration
AIM: to study the effect of migrant flows to and from US cities
OBJECTIVE: to find out the influence of migration on employment, earnings, and out-migration
как это важно! because some ambiguity in previous research, especially wage wise
Census 1940 -> data on employment, earnings, and out-migration
mid-atlantic cities constitute most of the sample, while less data is used for the south-west.
don't include female migrants!
they should have, because the role of women employment in great depression was opposite to that of men, so including them in the sample could provide for better understanding of migration outcomes for the nation as a whole rather than for its male part
only including those working a positive number of hours in he past week
might exclude some important data from the research. better, if this period was longer and exceeding the holiday allowed at the time
hours were only reported for the census week! measurement error
Censuses on unemployment and partial employment p. 727
generosity of New Deal programs and extreme weather events to instrument for migrant flows
instruments were developed to avoid biases
EARNINGS and WAGE OUTCOMES
investigate relationships between internal migration to a metropolitan area and annual earnings, weekly wages, hourly wages, hours worked in the previous week
residents within high in-migration areas were found to work less during the previous week. as a result, annual earnings of these residents slightly decreased.
work opportunities were affected mostly for those who worked the least amount of weeks (10th decile). 26 weeks, may be involuntary part-year employment. p. 735
Employment, relief and unemployment outcomes
results from 1930 suggest that decline in work opportunities is a much probable reaction than wages declining (was found before??????)
Men in metro areas "were far less likely to hold a relief job"
"migration shifted the daily activities of the unemployed but didn't influence the probability of employment"
"migrants were attracted to the area by the generosity of the relief jobs". M reduces the probbility of holding a relief job for locals.
other forms of local adj
accounting for different data variations???????