Attitudes and attitude change
Attitudes and attitude change
Attitudes and their origins
Two aspect's of people's reactions are important
Attitude direction: Whether the attitude is favorable, neutral, or unfavorable.
Attitude intensity: Whether the attitude is moderate or extreme.
Self-reports and obeservations are used to gauge explicit attitudes
: The attitude that people openly and deliberately express about an attitude object in self-report or by behavior
How to get around people's desire to hide what they really think?
Guarantee annonymity, Lie detector story
: Automatic and uncontrollable positive or negative evaluation of an attitude object
Muscle activity around the mouth and brows, time to react
: The way an attitude contributes to mastery by organizing, summarizing, and simplifying experience with an attitude object
: The way an attitude contributes to mastery by guiding our approach to posititve objects and our avoidance of negative objects.
Mastery of environment
Helping us gain and maintain connectedness with others
Social identity function
: The way an attitude contributes to connectedness by expressing iportant self and group identities and functions
Imperssion management function
: The way an attitude contributes to connectedness by smoothing interactions and relationships
The infromational base of attitudes
As people encounter information about an attitude object they form a mental representation of the object and everything they assosiate with it.
includes the facts people know and the beliefs they have about an attitude object.
consists of people's feelings and emotions about the object.
is knowledge about people's past, present, or future interactions with the object.
Putting it all together
: A confidently-held extremely positive or negative evaluation that is persistent and resistant and that influences information processing and behavior.
: An attitude based on conflicting negative and positive information
Syperfysial and systematic routes to peruasion: From snap judgments to considered opinions
Superficial processing: Persuasion shortcuts
:: Association of a cue that is positively or negatively evaluated with the attitude object, allowing the attitude object to be evaluated quickly and without much thought
: The process by which positive or negative attitudes are formed or changed by association with other positively or negatively valued objects
Systematic processing: Thinking persuasion through
Processing information about the attitude object
Attending to information
Reacting to information
: The generation of favorable or unfavorable reactions to the content of a persuasive appeal.
: Thoughts about thoughts or about thought processes
Accepting or rejecting the advocated position
The consequenses of systematic processing
Attitudes that result from systematic thinking are both persistent and resistant.
Superficial and systematic processing: Which, strategy, when?
Whether communications are processed superficially or systematically depends on two factors
Their cognitive capacity
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
: A model of persuasion that claims that attitude change occurs through either peripheral route or a central route that involves elaboration, and that the extent of elaboration depends on motivation and capacity.
How motivation influences superficial and systematic processing
Defending attitudes: Resisting Persuasion
Ignoring, reinterpreting, and countering attitudeinconsistent information
What it takes to resist persuasion
: A mental representation that summarizes an individual's evaluation of a particular person, group, thing, action, or idea
: The process of forming, strengthening, or changing attitudes by communication
: The process by which attitudes form and change by association of positive or negative information with the attitude object