Health problem of the cardiovascular system (Coronary artery disease…
Health problem of the cardiovascular system
than the normal
quantity of hemoglobin
WHO's Hemoglobin thresholds of anemia: (Adult)
women - 11.0 g/dl
male - 13.0 g/dl.
Decrease in normal
red blood cells
feeling of weakness,
Pale skin, mucosal linings, and nail beds, spoon nails with concave shape in chronic iron def, exertional dyspnea,
SBP > 140 and DBP > 90 mmHg
headache, drowsiness, confusion, vision disorders, nausea
Coronary artery disease
Angina Pectoris 心絞痛
Severe chest pain :arrow_backward:obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries
blood and oxygen
supply to the heart muscle
pale looking, dizzy, perspire and dyspnea
chest tightness, squeezing, burning sensation may experience ‘referred pain’ in
jaw, neck & down to one or both arms
Prescribed nitroglycerin tablet (TNG)in minutes
Failure of coronary circulation :arrow_right: :red_cross:supply adequate blood :arrow_right:cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue
vaso- spasm :arrow_right: arterial stenosis
Myocardial infarction (心肌梗塞)
interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart :arrow_right:heart cells to die
sudden, severe chest pain, pallor or cyanotic, dizziness,
may develop cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest.
Heart failure (心衰竭)
pumping force < normal :arrow_right:blood accumulates in the heart :arrow_right: cannot pump enough O2, nutrients to meet the needs.:arrow_right_hook:hypertrophic to keep pumping :arrow_right:(in time) fails to pump effectively
congestive heart failure (充血性心臟病)
body to retain body fluid and sodium, at a result, often respond :arrow_right:fluid builds up and the body becomes congested
ankle edema, and
group of conditions: abnormal
activity in the heart.
site of origin
(e.g. atrial flutter, premature junctional contraction, ventricular tachycardia).
(normal sinus rhythm, tachycardia, bradycardia), by mechanism (automaticity, reentry, junctional, fibrillation),
Heart blocks (傳導阻滯)
atrioventricular node :arrow_right: bradycardia
first degree, second degree and third degree heart blocks =complete heart block.