Circulation and Gas Exchange/Osmoregulation and Secretion. (chapter 42:…
Circulation and Gas Exchange/Osmoregulation and Secretion.
chapter 42: Circulation and gas exchange: this chapter goes into depth about the different circulatory systems and the importance of the heart muscles alomg with the respitory system. This chapter also explains the adaptations for gas exchange.
as the blood flows through the capillary beds in the left and right lungs it loads O(2) and unloads CO(2).
Oxygen rich blood returns from the lungs via the pulmonary veins to the left atrium of the heart.
the right ventricle pumps blood into the lungs via the pulmonary arteries.
Next, the oxygen rich blood flows into the heart's left ventricle, which pumps the oxygen rich blood out to body tissues through the systemic circuit.
blood leaves the left ventricle via the aorta, which conveys blood to arteries leading throughout the body.
blood is supplied to heart muscle itself.
atherosclerosis: the hardening of the arteries by accumulation of fatty deposits.
Low density lipoprotein: delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane protection.
stroke: the death of nervous tissue in the brain due to lack of O(2)
high density lipoprotein: scavenges excess cholesterol for return to the liver.
erythropoietin: stimulates the generation more erythrocytes.
plasma: vertebrate blood is a connective tissue consisting of cell suspended in a liquid matrix (plasma).
Control of Heart rhythm:
signals (yellow) from SA node spread through atria
Signals are delayed at AV node.
bundle branches pass signals to heart apex.
Signals spread throughout ventricles.
It is the damage or death cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage of one or more coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
The coronary arteries are small in diameter and therefore especially vulnerable to obstruction by atherosclerotic plaques or thrombi.
this is also called: Myocardial infarction
This blockage can destroy cardiac muscle quickly because of the constant beating heart muscle requires a steady supply of O(2).
When a large enough portion of the heart is affected, the heart will stop beating.
chapter 44: Osmoregulation and Excretion: This chapter basically touches basis on osmoregulation balance and loss of water and solutes. We also examine the nephron, hormonal circuits, and different excretory systems.
Counter current multiplier:
expends energy to create a concentration gradient.
involves loop of Henle - ^ NaCl concentration = concentrated urine
main effect to increase h20 permeability in late distal tube
removes h20 from urine so body maintains h20.
urea: very low toxicity, high energy cost, most terrestial.
uric acid: requires more energy than urea
Ammonia: lots of H20, most common aquatic species
insects, land snails, and many reptiles.
birds excrete salt by nasal glands.
regulation of water and salt balance and maintain, acid base balance.
produced by hypothalamus
stored in posterior pituitary gland
triggered by: rise in osmolarity (blood)/Decrease in blood volume
ADH regulates/ balances water in blood.
Blocking ADH = Peeing more (loss of water)
proabsorption: reclaim valuable substances for the filtrate and then returns them.
osmoregulation: the general term for the processes by which animals control solute concentrations and balance water gain and loss.
Filtration: the excretory tubule collects a filtrate for the blood(blood pressure through selectively permeable membrane.
osmolarity: the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
anhydrobiosis: "life without water.
transport epithelia: one or more layers of epithelial cells specialized for moving particular solutes in controlled amounts in specific directions.
malpighian tubes: that remove nitrogenous wastes and that also function in osmoregulation.