Attitudes and behavior
Attitudes and behavior
Changing attitudes with actions
From action to attitude via superficial processing
Cognitive dissonance: Changing attitudes to justify behavior
The theory of cognitive dissonance
Justifying attitude-discrepant behavior: I have my reasons!
Insufficient justification effect
: Attitude change that occurs to reduce dissonance caused by attitude-discrepant behavior that cannot be attributed to external reward or punishment.
Justifying effort: I suffered for it, so i like it.
Effort justification effect:
Attitude change that occurs to reduce the dissonance caused by freely choosing to exert considerable effort or suffering to achieve a goal
(greater valueing rewards for when we have to work harder)
Justifying decisions: Of course I was right!
Post-decisional regret effect
: Attitude change that occurs to reduce the dissonance caused by freely making a choice or decision
The processing payoff: Justifying inconsistent actions creates persistent attitudes
This is because of the extensive processing that is needed
Alternatives to attitude change
Minimize the inconsistency by trivializing the attitude-discrepant behavior (a few cookies won't make any difference, and besides, they were low in fat)
Adding cognitions to make it consonant (actually, you have to treat yourself once in a while or you just can't stay on a diet)
Minimizing perseptions of free choiche (the cookies were a gift; not eating them would be rude)
Other way to reduce uncomfortable dissonance tension is through alcohol and drugs
Reaffirming their possitive sense of self-worth and integrity (Hey, I really am a good person you know.
: Change in behavior that occurs to reduce the dissonance caused by freely choosing to publicly advocate a behavior that one does not actually perform oneself
Which dissonance strategy is used?
This mostly depends on opportunity and motivation
Changing actions with attitudes
How attitudes guide behavior
Attitudes guide behavior without much thought
What is it about the activation of an attitude that can guide behavior in this automatic fashion?
Attitudes can bias perceptions (ogen worden er als het ware naartoe getrokken/proporties/verschillen worden minder snel gezien)
Attitudes focus attention on some characteristics of the stimulus and away from others
Attitudes about objects can directly influence actions, in a relatively straightforward manner.
Attitudes guide behavior through considered intentions
When do attitudes influence behavior?