Influence and Impact of Hatshepsut (Religious Policies (TS: Hatshepsut…
Influence and Impact of Hatshepsut
TS: Hatshepsut pursued both a traditional religious policy and undertook religious innovations, influencing Egypt through not only her devotion to Amun and other gods, but also the introduction of the new concepts of Divine Oracles and personal piety.
Garnered much love and respect --> Hatshepsut to maintain strong monarchy and stable leadership
Status of Amun elevated over other gods, from a war god to a supreme deity, with her creation of 'offering prayers' using a range of epithets to describe the initial war god in a range of divine roles
Tomb stela of Amenemhet: "lord of eternity, lord of everlastingness...primeval god...he is the one who created men and gods"
Ma'at Ka-Re: amalgamation of the goddess Ma'at and Amun
Speos Artemidos: Hatshepsut's rock-cut temple for the Lion Goddess Pakhet at Beni Hasan where she promises Amun: "I shall magnify the ma'at, which is desired for him!"
Restorer of ma'at through restoration of temples, chapels and sanctuaries which were neglected during Hyksos domination
J.P Allen: "Temple of the mistress of Cusae...I hallowed it, built anew"
Divine Oracles: expressed the will of Amun through the inclination of a barque, which revealed the intent of Amun -
intervention of a god in human affairs, and it marked the development of personal piety, the personal relationship between god and human.
TS: Hatshepsut's foreign policy had a profound impact upon Egypt, ensuring an economically prosperous, stable and secure state through her military activism and her trading expedition to Punt
Peaceful twenty year rule due to her preparedness of Hatshepsut's military force
Fragmentary nature of evidence, early Egyptologists such as A. Gardiner have adopted 'Gender bias' perspective and concluded that Hatshepsut neglected military enterprises because she was a woman
Graffito of a royal official, Ty: "I followed the good god...Ma-ka-re. I saw him overthrowing the Nubian Nomads"
Inscription of Speos Artemidos, "my troops that have been neglected shall be supplied with excellent things" --> ensures security and stability of Egyptian borders
Punt: most important diplomatic events which reopened a prestigious trade route and spurred the economic stability, prosperity and wealth of Egypt - depicted in Punt reliefs on the second colonnade in Deir El-Bahri, the expedition tremendously broadened Egyptian access to exotic goods and resources (myrrh and frankincense) --> image of a capable pharaoh
Transplantation of myrrh trees was a plunder and exploitation of Punt's variable resources, exemplifying Egyptian power, "the expedition was an expression of Egyptian power and a form of economic imperalism"
TS: Hatshepsut's elaborate dynastic building programs had a major impact upon her reign, upholding significant religious influences through the recognition and honouring of the gods.
Means of self promotion and reflection of Egypt's wealth and prosperity under her rule.
Betsy M.Brian: "as a ruler, Hatshepsut inaugurated building projects that far outstripped those of her predecessors"
Temple of Karnak: remodelling the entrance by inserting a number of offering chambers called the 'Palace of Ma'at''
Obelisks: Statement of power and a declaration of Hatshepsut's legitimacy, as she demonstrated she was the equal of her husband and father who also had standing obelisks
J. Tyldesley: "served as a constant reminder that there was a powerful pharaoh on the throne"
Djerser-Djeseru at Deir El-Bahri: centre for propaganda, legitimising Hatshepsut's right to the throne --> Divine Birth and Coronation Inscriptions