writing ABC (where did writing come from (syllabic writing (the cuneiform…
where did writing come from
may not be learned
the difference might not be clear
Smoking is obvious but why does a circle with a line through it = banning?
Writing system of Sumerians is the oldest known.
Iraq about 6000 years ago
Cuneiform = wedge-shaped, which describes the tool used to create the stylus they used to create this writing.
Commercially oriented and as business operations became more complex, they needed permanent records.
The relationship between the image and the representation is non-arbitrary. It is like a comic book without text.
Once a pictogram is accepted as representation of object, its meaning can be extended to associated attributes.
tent= camping & picnic table= picnic area
Not sure where they came from and meaning not really discernible.
the cuneiform system evolved into a syllabic writing system.
Syllabic writing = each syllable in the language is represented by its own symbol, and words are written syllable by syllable
When a graphic sign no longer has a visual relationship to the word it represents, it becomes a phonographic system.
Persians (ca. 600-400 BCE) greatly simplified their syllabic alphabet with little use of word symbols, which led to it spreading widely.
the rebus principle
a representation of words by pictures of objects whose names sound like the word
can u c I love u
But as is obvious from this example, it is extremely inefficient as there are many sounds with no visual representations.
Greek for hiero = sacred glyphics = carvings
Originally simple pictograms, they eventually became logographic, as in the picture (eye, giraffe, to rule, fresh/cool)
Through the rebus principle, hieroglyphics also became a syllabic writing system
west semitic syllabary
Developed own system of 22 characters 1500 BCE, because Phoenicians (a Semitic people from modern day Lebanon) aware of both hieroglyphics and developments of Sumerian writing.
Characters represented consonants only, so reader needed to know the vowels..
Greeks tried to borrow Phoenician alphabet but didn’t work due to Greeks needing to know where vowels were
Luckily, Phoenician had more consonants than Greek, so extra characters used as vowels
Result = alphabetic writing, where both consonants and vowels symbolised.
Greek alphabet became basis of Latin, so is basis for most modern alphabets
writing differ from speech
Contrastive stress (s)
Spelling is rarely phonemic (except in Korean!). There are always irregularities or exceptions to rules. lihat diatas
Silent letters: listen, debt, gnome, know, psychology, right
Same sound, different spellings: aye, buy, by, die, hi, Thai, height, guide
Missing letters: use, fuse
Different sound, same spelling: thought /θ/, though /ð/, Thomas /t/
Homographs: lead /li:d/ and lead /led/
Morphemes can be pronounced differently but spelled the same.
The classic examples are the plural forms for nouns (/s/ /z/) and the regular past tense ending of ed (/d/ or /t/).
Here are some other examples.
Initial h silent in many words
e.g. honest, hour
th: from /t/ to /θ/
e.g. anthem, author, theatre
Writing is more conservative than spoken language, and changes in spoken language are not always recorded. English is a great example, e.g. night, pool, mate.
what are modern writing systems like how does
More efficient and less memory intensive
But not appropriate for languages like English with many types of syllables.
All words can be phonologically represented by about 100 syllables.
Consonantal alphabet writing
alphabets consist only of consonants
consonants from roots of most words
inflectional and derivational processes expressed by different vowels, which can sometimes be figured out by the reader.
concept + pronunciation
e.g. Chinese and Japanese kanji
benefit to one logographic system that is languages and dialects that are mutually unintelligible can be unified under one writing system.
Chinese writing can also be art
5000 characters to read newspapers
Convenient to use
Maximally efficient for transcribing
Easy to learn
Hangul built on phonemic principle, where each syllable represents a phoneme
17 c 11 v
how has technology impacted writing
new hybrid register
Emoji and emoticons are also an interesting new aspect to writing with technology.
It is growing in popularity and is becoming more widely available and developed. Someone even translated Moby Dick into emoji!
Abbreviations & acronyms
sebenarnya Sumerian itu jayanya kapan dan bahasa apa yang mereka gunakan