The evolution of microbiology in the drinking water industry (Beginnings…
The evolution of microbiology in the drinking water industry
Beginnings of Microbiology
refutation of spontaneous generation and development of pasteurization.
first work on the use of antiseptics during surgery
traced the source of a cholera epidemic to a contaminated water pump in London
classification of bacteria and discovery of bacterial spores
isolation of the anthrax bacterium
Approximately 1.4 billion people do not have access to clean water
This causes 5 million deaths annually
Common methods of cleaning
Municipal water systems designed to prevent waterborne infectious disease
Interested in 4 general groups of microorganisms:
Microorganisms such as coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and bacteriophages
(not necessarily harmful themselves they indicate that water quality has been compromised)
Nuisance organisms that can cause aesthetic problems or degrade water quality
Frank and opportunistic pathogens that cause disease
Beneficial microbes that may be used to reduce waste products generated by water treatment
Treatment facilities removed many microbes from water, but sometimes pathogens could break through and couse dieases like cholera and typhoid.
As Typhoid and cholera disappered, others came, like parasitic protozoa, Giardia and pathogenic E. coli
Molecular methods were first applied to the detection of potential waterborne pathogens in the 1980s
1993 Milwakee- Most famous waterbone disease caused by a protozoan parasite, Cryptosporidinm
Since then, there have been technological advances in drinking water microbiology
development of improved purification methods, polymerase chain reaction- real-time PCR, genotyping procedures, microarray assays, and cell culture-based infectivity assays.
The filtration step was improved to permit total capture of oocysts, immunomagnetic separation was incorporated and microscopic confirmation criteria reduced the number of false-positives reported
Sergei Winogradsky and Martinus Beijerinckare recognized as the originators of environmental microbiology.
Beijerinck discovered sulfate-reducing bacteria and developed the first enrichment cultures. (Isolates bacteria)