CHAPTER 6 Rome and the Barbarians (From Hill Town to Empire Part I:…
Rome and the Barbarians
Rise and fall of Rome
Key Terms & People:
- The peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire
- A state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch
-A company in the ancient Roman army, originally of one hundred men.
- An official in ancient Rome chosen by the plebeians to protect their interests
-The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC. At the time, they were one of the largest wars that had ever taken place
- Of or belonging to the commoners of ancient Rome
- The state council of the ancient Roman republic and empire, which shared legislative power with the popular assemblies, administration with the magistrates, and judicial power with the knights
- A member of a noble family or class in ancient Rome
-An official appointed by a government to live in a foreign city and protect and promote the government's citizens and interests there
- The male head of a family or household
-A very rich business leader with a great deal of political influence
- A group of three men holding power, in particular ( the First Triumvirate ) the unofficial coalition of Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus in 60 BC and ( the Second Triumvirate ) a coalition formed by Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian in 43 BC
Battle of Actium
-The decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BCE
-A large theater or stadium
-A religion centered on secret or mystical rites for initiates, especially any of a number of cults popular during the late Roman Empire
-An ancient Greek school of philosophy founded at Athens by Zeno of Citium. The school taught that virtue, the highest good, is based on knowledge, and that the wise live in harmony with the divine Reason (also identified with Fate and Providence) that governs nature, and are indifferent to the vicissitudes of fortune and to pleasure and pain.
Edict of Milan
-A letter signed by the Roman emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire
-A member of a group of peoples inhabiting much of Europe and Asia Minor in pre-Roman times. Their culture developed in the late Bronze Age around the upper Danube, and reached its height in the La Tène culture (5th to 1st centuries BC) before being overrun by the Romans and various Germanic peoples.
-A member of a Germanic people that invaded the Roman Empire from the east between the 3rd and 5th centuries. The eastern division, the Ostrogoths, founded a kingdom in Italy, while the Visigoths went on to found one in Spain
-The Codex Justinianus is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman emperor in Constantinople.
- The social belief in the importance of the destruction of usually religious icons and other images or monuments, most frequently for religious or political reasons
-Roman general and politician, consul seven times (107, 104–100, 86 bce), who was the first Roman to illustrate the political support that a successful general could derive from the votes of his old army veterans.
-Egyptian queen, famous in history and drama as the lover of Julius Caesar and later the wife of Mark Antony. She became queen on the death of her father. After the Roman armies of Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated their combined forces, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and Egypt fell under Roman domination.
-Roman general under Julius Caesar and later triumvir (43–30 bce), who, with Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, was defeated by Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) in the last of the civil wars that destroyed the Roman Republic.
- Roman poet, best known for his national epic, the Aeneid (from c. 30 bce; unfinished at his death).
-Celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce, and dictator (46–44 bce), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March.
-First Roman emperor, following the republic, which had been finally destroyed by the dictatorship of Julius Caesar, his great-uncle and adoptive father. His autocratic regime is known as the principate because he was the princeps, the first citizen, at the head of that array of outwardly revived republican institutions that alone made his autocracy palatable.
-Holy Roman emperor (1220–1250). A Hohenstaufen and grandson of Frederick I Barbarossa, he pursued his dynasty’s imperial policies against the papacy and the Italian city states; and he also joined in the Sixth Crusade, conquering several areas of the Holy Land and crowning himself king of Jerusalem.
- Byzantine emperor (527–565), noted for his administrative reorganization of the imperial government and for his sponsorship of a codification of laws known as the Codex Justinianus.
Rise and Fall of Empire:
The citizens had different ethic, racial, religious, and cultural roots which provided diversity in the Empire.
Pax Romana (Roman Peace) was praise for its effectiveness
Romans became one of the largest empires in Ancient Times.
Some criticized Pax Romama saying that is was truly brute military conquest.
From Hill Town to Empire Part I:
The Founding of the Roman Empire
Rome drove out Etruscans with their armies being central to their power and declared themselves a republic.
Quaestors had limited authority, consul was highest rank.
Rome was ruled by Etruria and learned about culture from them
Two consuls were use to keep each other in check
Rome was supposedly founded by Romulus and Remus
The Conquest of Italy
Roman armies formerly fought in phalanxes similar to Greeks
Opponents of Romans could choose Allegiance or conquest
Roman Republic made alliances in Italy and challenged Etruscans
Had a war-geared society and troops were always moving,
The Conquest of Carthage and the Western Mediterranean
Carthage had ports and cities and was nearing quarrel with Romans
The three wars that were fought between them were called the Punic wars
Carthage rebuilt forces with help from Spain and began Punic War II
Hannibal ,a skilled commander, could not break Rome's power and Carthage was dependent on Rome
Romans had a policy of brute force for their enemies
Carthage attacked African Roman ally and started Punic War III and Carthage was destroyed
Rome sent a warning sign telling others not to mess with them
Romans turned attention towards Gaul/France
Julius Caesar led Romans into Gallic War in which he led Rome to claim all of Gaul
Romans seized land wherever there was a weakness available
Roman empire was divided when Alexander died.
Roman forces would warn people to sumot or be destroyed
Pompey expanded the empire and created forty cities for Roman political influence.
Institutions of Empire
People were given Roman citizenship in exchange for their support which was highly useful
Tribune is one of the most powerful offices in Rome and was a position held by Marcus Drusus
Successful empires must gain people's support
Patrons and Clients
Power relationships= Private as well as public, under the Republic
Patron-client relationships showed the status of the Roman empire and control over provinces
The Roman Family
Double standards were prevalent among the upper class
Marriages were arranged and motherhood was a right of passage
Roman women were subordinate to men until their father or husband died
Paterfamilias mirrored patron-client structure of Society
The Struggle of the Orders
Struggle of the Orders was conflict between plebeians and patricians.
Patricians had more power and softer punishments than the plebeians
Plebeian consuls were elected to help balance the power and offer them a voice.
Expansion could lead to economic problems within Rome for people not in the upper class.
Urban Splendor and Squalor
Newcomers to the city were , wealthy , powerful, and urbanized the city
Architecture and comfort were also emphasized during this period
Class divisions were most notable in the large Population of Rome
Rome was considered hell like to those escaping from bankrupt family businesses
Class and Class Conflicts
Patricians (aristocrats) and Plebeians (everyone else) arose as the two dominant social classes
Plebeians , specifically non-property holders, slaves, and women, were mostly excluded from the govt.
Attempts of Reform
Redistribution of public land was done to achieve equity between patricians and plebeians
Gaius argued citizenship for Latins and introduced giving bread to poor
Tax farmers allowed states to collect taxes while letting the person become very rich
Laid the Foundation for Julius and Augustus Caesar
"Bread and Circuses"
Rome bribed poor with bread and public festivals to keep them compliant
Continued to use these policies until collapse and lead to popularity in Christianity.
Slaves and Slave Revolts
Three major slave revolts grew into wars with thousands of slaves crucified or dead.
Slaves were still a threat to the Roman Empire but still continued
A quarter of Rome's farmers were slaves and were easily required
Roman armies later used smaller maneuverable units in least to most experience.
Romans copied Carthage ships and had many victories and minimal losses
Rome was always considered a military state
Romans armies were always growing and they consonantly acquired more land
From Hill Town to Empire Part II:
Generals in Politics
Generals competed with each other for power which would possibly cause a civil war
Caesar was elected praetor in 59 BC a high place of political power
Marius arranged free land for veterans soldiers in Roman territory which forced them to expand
Caesar became dictator and revised roman calendar, re-organised city government, and was later stabbed to death.
Octavian took over and became the unchallenged ruler of Rome and reunified the nation under the name "Augustus"
Augustus built new roads, ensured trade & commerce, and won over the aristocracy
Roman women gained more rights due to new marriage laws
Banned adultery but encouraged child marriage while rebuilding temples for worshiping the gods
Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Marcus Crassus formed a Triumvirate and Caesar defeated them both.
The End of the Republic
Rome changed from a republic to an imperial monarchy when Augustus began his rule
General gained more power during the expansion from military conquests
Augustus conquered lands in Europe and Mesopotamia
Hadrian withdrew Mesopotamian forces and his successor reached the limits of the Roman Empire
Granting citizenship to new territories was limited due to the expansion
Jus Gentium was developed to pacify and unify Roman Empire
Economic Policies of the Empire
Exploited political power for economic advantages that benefited themselves.
As the Roman Empire grew, people felt as though they were loosing their humanity & souls as ending their innocence.
Loyalty between elites was vital for peace among the empire
Some wished to go back to before maltreatment of plebeians and slaves
Rome imported grain in order to feed the million people under the empire
Specialized resources came from varying colonies and was sent usually by sea if within the empire.
Most of the cities in the empire were self-sufficient
Romans constructed cities to be administration, military and economic centers in newly acquired land.
Roman rule benefits urban upper class citizens
Luxury trade routes were kept safe as the rich commended specialty goods
Rome exchanged metals for luxury goods.
Land routes were vital and some lead to becoming silk routes
Silk, bronze, alabaster, ivory statues,and glass works were common luxury goods.
Trade was very cutthroat and the upper class claimed to be disgusted by it (aka they did it all the time)
Traders were also very exploitative
Populations fell after trade became insecure from external and internal conflicts.
Cultural Policies of the Empire
Greek was language of High culture, Latin was administration language
Rome's ego encouraged conquest of others
Rome absorbed Greek culture including language,and fine arts styles & traditions
Romans were attracted to the Greek philosophy of Stoicism.
Seneca wrote the Golden Rule on the topic of treatment of slaves
Religion in the Empire
Mithraism worshiped Persian Sun god Mithra and emphasized discipline and loyalty
Another religion that was popular was worshiping attractive female goddesses.
Rome celebrated the emperor-god while having sacrifices for pagan gods
Government felt threatened by groups that worshiped things not the status quo
Jews and Romans didn't get along as their one god contrasted seeing the Emperor as a God
Jesus was believed to be God and was met with criticism by the Romans and he was crucified by them
The new religion , Christianity, attracted poor, powerful classes, and women (due to greater freedom)
Christianity emerged as official religion and terminated government support for polytheistic cults.
The Barbarians and the Fall of the Roman Empire
Barbarians were believed to need civilization according to the Romans
Invaders at the Gate
Nomadic groups began to invade the region which wasn't good for Rome.
Germans adopted Roman tools, weapons, and luxury but were still intimidated by their force.
Huns were Asian nomads who lived in tents, and virtually lived on horses.
Goths/Germans developed sophisticated iron tools and weapons
Groups of Huns had chiefs and government like other societies
Celts expanded their territory and were eventually conquered by the Romans
Nomads crumbled the Han dynasty and the nomads would do the same for the Roman Empire
Celts arrived in Europe
The Decline and Dismemberment of the Roman Empire
Goths either accepted assimilation, withdrew, or seize the empire
The Crisis of the Third Century
The Empire Strikes Back and preserved Italy as their territory
Rome defeated revolts and recaptured land
Goths and other groups took control over Roman territory
Tried to assimilate opponents into the empire to benefit both sides
The Fragmentation of Authority
Warfare lead to decentralization of Rome to battlefields as well as senates' power to generals
Constantinople was established as second capital
Empire was taken over by barbarian but was still technically called Roman
Alaric the Visigoth challenged Rome over control of the Mediterranean and he won.
Huns built up confederacy and German general Odoacer killed last Roman Emperor
Their imperial system worked for to more centuries until leadership was in the hands of the Germans
Hundreds of years of fighting Barbarian invasions led to Roman downfall
Causes of the Decline and Fall
Rome had no successful system for succession for emperors
Rome couldn't win battles against invaders and people took over empire
Imperial economy was overtaxed to fund military as the empire was over extended
Rome's desire for Christianity > Rome's desire for political power
Climate Change hurt agriculture and economy & the empire had epidemics
The Empire in the East
Constantinople included elements of Christianity, Greek, and Roman culture.
Resurgence under Justinian
Roman system of Civil Law became the Justinian Code which laid ground for modern Europeans.
Church and state were not separated and theology arguments had political problems.
Roman empire was crippled by costs in wealth and manpower and Persians fought the remaining specs.
Empire organized armies into districts and units.
Strained relationships arised after iconoclastic controversy between Islam and Christianity.
Arabs captured Eastern Empire
Leaders were known for military and religious leadership.
Religious and Political antagonists led to weakening & eventual conquering from the Turks.
A Millennium of Byzantine Strength
Byzantine Empire survived through an effective government and complex hierarchy system.
The empire did not overextend and cities were still commerce centers
The Legacy of the Roman Empire What Difference Does It Make?
Roman Roads connected cities and laid foundation for trade.
Sister Capital of roman empire (Constantinople) dominated region until 1453
Roman Law influenced Napoleon Codes in 1800s.
Britain was similar to the Romans and claimed to have stumbled into imperialism like them as well.
Latin still survives through religious practices.
Pax ---- is used to show political & military power a country may have.
Churches adapted roman administration organization.
Compare the Roman Empire to earlier empires discussed in class.
The Roman empire is similar to the Greeks with Rome "borrowing" phalanxes, similar trading partners, polytheistic religions, and architecture/culture.
Discuss the role of religion in the Roman Empire.
The Empires would treat their emperor as if they were a god and would be worshipped as such. There was also no division between church and state leading religious problems to have political consequences.
What were the secrets of Roman military success?
Romans would use intimidation acquiring land that showed any weakness and used it's various allies to achieve military expansion and success