primary agonist is
, also known as the
key psychoactive compound is
induces a number of significant side effects due to being
─ especially in the
not all have psychoactive properties.
─ psychoactive compounds of which some are endogenous.
Drug / synthetic cannabinoids deter the normal endogenous pathway in the brain.
are a type of
G-protein coupled receptor
(metabotropic) which can produce both positive and negative effects through a
multipolar intracellualr signalling
can be both
at the same time.
there are at least
of cannabinoid receptors.
exists in high concentrations in the brain.
especially in regions association with the
basal ganglia, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus
effects are linked to this receptor.
found around the
areas of the body, such as the spleen and pancreas
found in glial cells and the brainstem
Key groups of
phosphorylation of tyrosines on signalling molecules.
activation of cell signalling.
binding of ligand leads to ion influx ─ activation of conductance.
ligands are typically
activation can cause different responses:
: increase from RMP.
: decrease from RMP.
(ethanol) is an agonist.
binds to the GABA A (ionotropic) receptor.
binding allows chloride into the cell, which
the general activity in the nervous system.
loss of coordination
lower doses associated w/:
● loss of inhibitions
too much may lead to
─ overactivation of chloride channels.
, which acts as an
neurotransmitter that sends a
→ ionotropic subtype
has an intrinsic
main effects are
has many ligands including
benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol
all examples of substances that produce an inhibitory physiological effect or response to the environment.
→ metabotropic subtype
G-protein Coupled Receptors
uses a complex of proteins called
to send a signal from the receptor to other cellular targets.
④ G-protein is activated ─ subunits disssociate into
⑤ The dissociated subunits respectively bind to different
bound to the Gα-subunit replaced by high-energy
② Agonist binds to the receptor.
① Receptor in
─ G-protein is intact and bound to transmembrane receptor.
is generated ─ shorly after, GTP is replaced by GDP.
⑦ The trimer reassembles, then binds to the membrane receptor to restore resting state.
these targets can be internal enymes such as
as a secondary messenger
commonly used as targets for drug testing and binding.