Book 3 Chapter 1: Impact of World War 1 in Europe (Impact of the Treaty of…
Book 3 Chapter 1: Impact of World War 1 in Europe
The Treaty of Versailles was created.
The Big 3
more powerful countries
contributed the most
towards winning of the war.
France: Georges Clemenceau
USA: Woodrow Wilson
Britain: Lloyd George
Made most of the decisions.
Objective was to keep
however they all had
Objectives of Key Countries
reluctant to join
WW1 as it was a European war.
fired and sank
American merchant ships, believing that they were carrying weapons to Britain.
The sinking of Lusitania resulted in the
death of civilians
USA declared war on Germany in
entered the war late
suffered very little
However, the death of US soldiers
angered the American public
and questioned why Americans should die for other people's wars.
The USA adopted
a policy of isolation
rather than a policy of involvement.
President Woodrow Wilson
to be used as a basis for lasting international peace.
Self-determination: For the people in Eastern European countries.
League of Nations: Where countries can talk out their problems.
Meant to bring about
a just peace
The war was fought on French soil, causing
France to suffer more
than any other country.
1.4 million lives were lost.
Large areas of agricultural and forested land, as well as public buildings were lost.
Germany was to
pay heavy reparations
weaken Germany's military
as it had already been
regain valuable land
Wanted to create
a buffer zone
between Germany and France
to prevent German aggression
between Britain and Germany
would be damaged
a crippled Germany
weaken the economy
Fear that an impoverished Germany would turn to
Germany needed to act as
a buffer against the Soviet Union
Germany's threat as
a naval and industrial power
make Germany pay
Mindset brought about by
the high number of casualties
Lloyd George's promise
to the citizens of Britain.
Entered the war in
an ally of Germany
in order to obtain
Fought alongside Britain and France
in exchange for Asian territories
as a world power.
British naval blockades brought about
1.4 million people died.
The King of Germany fled.
Destroyed the German monarchical system.
a new concept
towards the German citizens.
The German citizens
by the goverment.
the summer of 1918
, they were told that they had been
told that they would win the war
In the end Germany was
defeated and forced to accept the terms
of the treaty.
Terms of the Treaty
The Treaty of Versailles
Most of the clauses
dealt with Germany.
Germans were given 2 weeks to comment on the treaty however
their comments were ignored
They were to
sign the treaty or risk invasion
The treaty was signed in
the Palace of Versailles
humiliate the Germans
as it was signed in the same room where France had surrendered Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in
Key Terms of the Treaty
War Guilt Clause
Germany was to
accept all the blame for war damages
as it was the aggressor.
justify the other severe terms
of the treaty.
Germans felt that responsibility
should have been shared
Germany was to pay for
all war damage
, the amount was set at 6650 million pounds.
To be paid in both money and goods.
Most of the payment would be given to France and Belgium.
Germans were concerned that the reparations would cripple them.
The German army was limited to
100 000 men
conscription was banned
The German navy was restricted to
6 battle ships
24 smaller ships and no submarines
tanks and heavy guns
Rhineland became a
demilitarized buffer zone
German's felt that this would
make Germany vulnerable
both in the east and west.
Saar coal fields.
Colonies in the Far East and Africa.
German's felt that France and Britain were benefitting
at the expense of Germany's pride and economy
New countries in Europe
9 new states were created.
Large groups of people
the nation they were living in
the one they would rather belong to
threatened long-term peace
Balkan Wars in
League of Nations
not allowed to be a member
until it was deemed a peaceful country.
This insulted the Germans.
Impact of the Treaty of Versailles.
The Germans deemed the treaty a
It was formed as the basis for the
territorial reduction and reparations
placed on Germany.
The Weimar government had
no choice but to accept the terms of the treaty
despite the humiliation and injustice.
The Weimar government was labelled the November Criminals.
weakened their credibility and support
German Territorial Reductions
of its total land area, including those of economical value and were rich in resources.
made it impossible
for Germany to pay the reparations.
Saar coal region
between Germany and German-speaking Austria.
Germany's Military Weakeness
unable to defend its borders
against the Allied Powers.
No other country had been forced to reduce its military strength.
Germany's Economic Weakness
The Allies were given
the right to demand compensation
from Germany for war damages.
Germany had to make
through the surrendering of coal and other resources at set periods.
However, the reparations were
impossible to repay
British economic adviser, J M Keynes, thought that 2000 million pounds would have been a fairer figure.
Due to the war efforts, the reparations posed
an additional economic burden
German economic conditions and Germany was
make its payments on time.
accused Germany of sabotaging its economy
to reduce the value of payment.
, France confiscated coal and other goods from the Ruhr industrial region as payment.
worsened the economic crisis
led to a workers' strike
in the Ruhr.
Growth in Dictatorships
The formation of new states
failed to promote democracy
in Eastern Europe.
, many states in central and Eastern Europe had fallen under dictatorship.
It called for the creation of
independent nation states
for the various ethnic groups.
the boundaries between ethnic communities were not clear
thus states often had combinations of different ethnic groups.
Many nationalities found themselves outside of their nation-states.
Germans in Czechoslovakia
Germans in Danzig
Self-determination seemed to only apply to the winners of the war.
This created greater instability during the period of
Some new states were ambitious and
tried to conquer territory
Power Vacuum in Europe
Although defeated and weakened, Germany
remained a very large nation
German population: 65 million people vs French population: 40 million
Germany was surrounded by
military weak and economically unstable
These states were meant to
prevent Germany's expansion
However this created a potential
imbalance in power
Was the Treaty of Versailles too harsh?
no attempts at negotiating
the treaty. The treaty
had simply been imposed
As a dictated peace, the treaty could be claimed as
The bitterness and resentment caused by the treaty led to Hitler and the Nazi's rise in power from the
1920s to 1930s
The treaty was
as compared to the Brest-Litovsk treaty which Germany had imposed on Russia in
The Brest-Litovsk treaty was
also a dictated peace
The Russians had to surrender
half of their industrial land
We are only able to criticise the treaty due to having
the benefit of hindsight
, it was strongly believed that
Germany had caused a great deal of destruction and misery
. Thus, it
had to be punished