Liberal Italy's Foreign Policy
Liberal Italy's Foreign Policy
What was Red Week?
Anarchists, republicans and others joined
Giolitti's attempts at being fair to everyone failed under the increased suffrage
Giolitti was replaced with Antonio Salandra who hoped he could revive liberalism by aligning it slightly with nationalism
By June 1914 there was turmoil again.
The PSI claimed a national strike after three protesters were shot dead in Ancona.
Mass suffrage led to mass parties and both the nationalists and the Catholics dealt with huge gains in number
For Red Week Northern and Central Italy was in chaos, buildings torched, tax registers destroyed, railway stations seized and churches attacked..
Hundreds of workers died
Italy was almost on the verge of revolution
Trade unions agreed to call off the strike
The riots demonstrated the difficulty of reaching national unity Italy was the most divided since unification.
Why did Giolitti resign?
The 1913 elections showed Giolitti's government
Liberal deputies lost 71 seats, with Catholics, Socialists, Fascists and radicals making gains
The Catholics asked Liberal deputies to agree to 7 points, in return from the Catholic vote.
Gentiloni boasted that 228/318 deputies elected were down to the Catholic vote
Giolitti said he hadn't heard of this, and many felt that Liberal government were reliant on the Catholics
Italy was becoming more politically polarised, and Giolitti trying to unite political forces under transformismo became almost impossible
His concessions to the Catholics angered the other political parties
In 1914 they retracted their support for Giolitti and he resigned
This resignation angered the church, who felt that with the anti-Church faction gone, Giolitti had the power to set up a government who could've been pro church and pushed Christian teaching
What was the impact of the franchise extension of 1912?
Giolitti realised many of those fighting in Libya couldn’t vote about the decision to go there, as only men over 21 who were literate could vote
Therefore it was all men in the military and men over 30 who could vote
Giolitti was slightly worried as 70% of voters were illiterate
He hoped the workers wouldn't be radical and so would strengthen the liberals
He hoped greater voting power would undermine the PSI
It failed and only diluted his power more
What was the impact of the Invasion of Libya?
Increased the number of people opposed to the liberal State
Nationalists claimed credit for the war, and said they forced Giolitti to make foreign policy decisions
Radical socialists opposed the war and kicked out those who agreed with it.
PSI became increasingly radical and no longer wanted to work with Giolitti
Giolitti's attempts at absorbing the socialists failed
war costs a lot, many people were in poverty and the cost of war was hated by the poor
Liberals and lack of patriotism were blamed for the loss of so many men
Giolitti lost support from everyone, lost money, and generally had a lot of opposition as a result. It meant that Transformismo fell apart and so all power went. The southern peasants meant that they began to severely dislike the fact that he spent money on gaining land instead of improving themselves. He's trying to keep everyone happy and it fails