Vienna Secession 1897-1920s Melinda Cardenas FCS 410 (Architecture (In…
Vienna Secession 1897-1920s
Historical and Social
The Vienna Secession was founded on 3 April 1897 by artists Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil, Wilhelm Bernatzik and others. Although Otto Wagner is widely recognised as an important member of the Vienna Secession he was not a founding member. The Secession artists objected to the prevailing conservatism of the Vienna Künstlerhaus with its traditional orientation toward Historicism. The Berlin and Munich Secession movements preceded the Vienna Secession, which held its first exhibition in 1898.
The first Secessionist exhibition held in 1898 displays paintings, wallpaper, stained glass designs, and book illustrations. It displays a new architectural language and overall form and design. The projects that were established by a craft studio were mostly decorating for individual rooms, entire houses, or small apartments. Products ranged from furniture to textile designs.
In 1903, Hoffmann and Moser founded the Wiener Werkstätte as a fine-arts society with the goal of reforming the applied arts (arts and crafts).
On 14 June 1905 Gustav Klimt and other artists seceded from the Vienna Secession due to differences of opinion over artistic concepts.
The concept of the Vienna Secession focuses on developing a form of contemporary life and strives to dissolve the division between the fine and decorative arts and design through their exhibitions. Following Otto Wagner in Moderne Architecture, the group believes in the expressive power of construction and materials instead of historicism, form over ornament, rationalism, and stylistic simplicity.
Emphasizes on honest use of materials and excellent craftsmanship. The art appeals to the highest taste.
Exhibits minimalism, geometric silhouettes, and strong contrasts. All emphasize geometric forms, shapes, repetition, defined outlines, vertical movement, volumes as planes, functionalism, simplicity, and an honest use of materials.
Motifs: Motifs exhibit squares and checkered patterns in black and white or in solid and void renditions like dots, repetitive geometric designs, medallions, circles, carved floral ornament, sunflowers, philodendrons, roses, and laurel trees or leaves.
The quality of rectangular and cubic forms dominate the composition, monumental mass, sparing use of the ornament, and an emphasis on light, function and air. The creations in their designs were focused on simplicity, functionality, and modern materials.
In addition with painters and sculptors, there were several architects who became associated with the Vienna Secession. During this time, architects focused on bringing purer geometric forms into the designs of their buildings. Even though they had their own type of design, the inspiration came from neoclassical architecture, with the addition of leaves and natural motifs. The three main architects of this movement were Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, and Otto Wagner. Secessionist architects often decorated the surface of their buildings with linear ornamentation in a form commonly called whiplash or eel style, although Wagner's buildings tended towards greater simplicity and he has been regarded as a pioneer of modernism.
Rectangular and cubic forms dominate the composition, monumental mass, sparing use of the ornament, and an emphasis on light, function and air. The creations in their designs were focused on simplicity, functionality, and modern materials
Rooms in the houses of the wealthy show prominent entry halls, living rooms, and dining rooms
Walls are standard for interiors showing the influence of Macintosh. Bright red, green, yellow rose, and blue textiles, floor covering, artwork, and decorative arts liven up rooms by punctuating important details. Materials or decoration also may repeat the colors of the exterior.