Developing Through the Lifespan (Continuity and Stages (Adult Development,…
Developing Through the Lifespan
Nature vs Nurture
Nature = Genetics
What is determined by your
Body structure and appearance
Nurture = environment,
What is determined by your
Parents and Family
Culture and language
Environmental influences on genetics can be found through Twin Studies
Maternal stress has powerful effects on
Epigenetics: genes are switched on and off by the
Continuity and Stages
Believed that the force driving us is our struggle to make sense of our experiences
Children in same age groups make same IQ test mistakes
Framework that organizes and interprets information
Children were actively trying to construct an understanding of the world
Stages of Cognitive Development
2 to 7: Preoperational: Representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning
7 to 11: Concrete operational: Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
Birth to 2: Sensorimotor: Experiencing the world through senses and actions
12+: Formal operational: Reasoning abstractly
Potential for mature moral reasoning
Today's researchers believe:
Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age.
Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.
Development is a continuous process.
Perspective or filter we see events through
Especially 2-7 year olds have difficulty taking another person's point of view
Theory of Mind
People form ideas about their own and other's mental states. They form predictions about feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors.
Attachment Styles as Children
See relationships as unimportant
Distance themselves from stress
Isolated and emotionally removed from themselves and others
Self-critical and insecure
Seeks reassurance from others
For fear of being rejected they are not trusting in relationships and become clingy and dependent on their partner
Insecurity makes them emotionally desperate in relationships
Balance of independence and close relationships
Since they were detached from feelings in times of trauma as a child, as adults, they become detached from themselves.
Being in an emotional relationship brings up, subconsciously, memories of childhood trauma
Is no longer in life but instead, is reliving childhood emotional trauma.
Don't know themselves and have limited relationships with others
Posed famous Heinz dilemma and thereby found stages of moral development
Doing the right thing results in empathy and self-discipline
As thinking matures so does behavior. Maturing means less selfish and more caring
Levels of Moral Thinking
Preconventional Morality (Before age 9)
Stage 1: Avoids punishment
Stage 2: Gains reward
Conventional Morality (By early adolescence)
Stage 3: Gains approval/avoids disapproval
Stage 4: Does duty to support society/avoids dishonor or guilt
Postconventional Morality (Adolescence and beyond)
Stage 5 - Affirms agreed upon rights
Stage 6 - Abstract, autonomous moral principle
Believed that we must solve a crisis at each stage of life
Each stage has it's own psychosocial task
Task is to solidify a social identity of self by testing different roles
Achieving identity status involves crisis and commitment as
applied to occupational choice, religion, and political ideology.
Considering occupation choices and reevaluating past beliefs
Committed to an occupation and ideology regardless of parental wishes
Haven't committed to an occupation or haven't given it much thought.
Aren't interested in ideological matters and instead sample from all.
In a crisis period not able to make a decision
In the struggle they are trying to compromise parental wishes, societies demands and their own capabilities.
They have made a commitment but lines between parental goals and their own is unclear.
They are becoming what others planned for them.
Love and Career
Evolutionary scientists believe that commitment has survival value
Happiness comes from working in a job that fits your interests and provides a sense of competence and accomplishment
Love and work are defining themes of adult life
Well Being Across the Lifespan
Happiness does not decrease with age
Older adults show less negative responses
Positive feelings remain, negative feelings fade
Family and friends
Suitable living arrangements
Death and Dying
Grief is more severe if death occurs unexpectedly.
The “normal” range of reactions or grief stages after the death of a loved one varies widely
People who view their lives with a sense of integrity see life as meaningful and worthwhile.
Stability and Change
Lifelong development requires both stability and change. Stability gives us our identity
As people grow older, personality gradually stabilizes
Some of our characteristics, such as temperament, are very stable.
Some traits, such as social attitudes, are much less stable than