Gender :girl::skin-tone-4: :boy::skin-tone-6: (Freud (ELECTRA COMPLEXJung…
Gender :girl::skin-tone-4: :boy::skin-tone-6:
Jung proposed this. Based on a girl's conflict between mother and father. 3 stages.
attraction to mother. Ends when realise she has no penis.
Lust for father - penis envy.
Lust substituted by desire for a baby.
During the phallic stage of psychosexual development, boys experience 3 stages.
sexual desire for mother.
Father is a rival so wish them to be dead. Castration anxiety (this fear is repressed).
Resolved as boy identifies with father and internalises father's gender identity and masculine behaviour is developed.
Gender Schema Theory
ROLE OF PEERS
Children identify with in-group, ignore out-group. Avoid behaviours of out-group and seek info about in. Same-sex peers are 'like me' so are more 'fun'. Gender schemas influence a child's likelihood to play with same/opposite sex peers.
MARTIN AND HALVERSON
said children develop schemas related to gender from their interactions with others, media, culture etc. Lead to stereotypes and 'appropriate' behaviour for gender. Based on gender beliefs which are fixed gender attitudes as children ignore info not relevant to in-group. So gender schemas have a role in how / what we remember.
Typical chromosome patterns
: XX = female, XY = male- usually direct link between chromosomal sex and internal / external genitalia.
Atypical Sex chromosome patterns
: Klinefelter's syndrome= XXY male but less masc appearance as reduced levels of T. Turner's= XO has vagina and womb but no periods. Androgen insensitivity syndrome= lack receptors for T to have an effect so raised as girls but have XY chromosomes.
: male hormone. Some XY are insensitive to this so raised as girls. Prenatal causes development of male genitalia. 2ndary sexual characteristics during puberty.
: at puberty, promotes secondary sexual characteristics in women.
: 'love' hormone promotes bonding in males and females, orgasms, tend & befriend in women.
Social Learning Theory
BANDURA's THEORY APPLIED TO GENDER
Bandura explained we learn indirectly from others (called models) by observing and imitating behaviour.
: Children observe gendered behaviour from models (live or symbolic).
: learn observed consequences of certain gendered behaviours. Imitate same-sex models.
: appraisal of gendered behaviour encourages the child to repeat it, while punishment reduces likelihood of reoccurrence (e.g. boy likely to be praised for liking football but not for wearing a dress).
: apply learnt behaviours to other situations through mediational processes by creating expectations for future outcomes.
: Explicit instructions given to child about how to behave. e.g. "be ladylike".
Gendered behaviour internalised and no longer dependent on environmental factors for external reinforcement.
Sex-Role inventory on a likert scale of 1-7, based on psychological androgyny to see how fem / masc someone is. Bem believed most psychologically healthy is a balance of both traits.
SEX ROLE STEREOTYPES
are shared expectations in society about how each sex 'should' behave.
is a mix of female and male traits.
is cognitive make up.
is biological / genetic make up.
Cognitive Stage Theory
based on Piaget's ideas of stages and cognitive development.
: pre-operational thinking age 2-3.
: constancy over time, age 4, conservation (appearance plays a role).
: gender is constant over time and situations, age 6, concrete, logical thinking.
Media and Culture
Gender rules of culture influence stereotypes and gendered behaviour reinforcement. BERRY et.al. = more conformist in non-nomadic societies, conformity varies in gender across societies. Gender gap decreasing in UK. MEAD found cultural role differences across 3 social groups in Papa New Guinea (suggests social differences).
Stereotypes in media influence sex-typed behaviour. Vicarious reinforcement = self-efficacy qualities in gender-consistent / inconsistent activities. Men portrayed as directive & independent; women = emotional and dependent (BUSSEY AND BANDURA). Women in adverts = flawless and passive. PINGREE = media can present counter-stereotypes e.g. men/women in unusual roles. May reduce children's adherence to stereotypes as media = powerful.