Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table (The Periodic Table (Group 0 (The…
Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
Atoms and the Periodic Table
Atoms are very small and typically have an atomic radius about
of subatomic particles
Almost all of the mass of an atom is in the nucleus
Isotopes and Ions
Of an element have the same number of protons but a different number od neutrons: example- Chlorine has two isotopes
Atoms can gain or lose electrones.
lose of electrons to form
. (As my teacher says that they are loosers)
gain electrons to form
e.g: Sodium (Na):12 neutrons, 11 protones, 11 electrons (
looses -1 electron =10 electrons
) Fluorine (F):10 neutrons, 9 protons, 9 electrons (
gains +1 electron = 10
of an atom shoes how the electrons are arranged around the
For the first
can only hold maximum of
The next 2 shells
can each hold a maximum of
Atomis,Elements and Compounds
Atoms, Elements and Compounds
All substances are made of
is the smallest part of an
that can exist.
are displayed in the
The atoms of each element are rapresented by a different
: example- Sodium (Na), Chlorine (Cl)...
contains atoms of
two or more elements
that are chemically bonded.
You can sum up what has happened during a chemical reaction by writing a word equation or balanced symbol
are on the the left-hand side of the equation.
are on the right-hand side of the equation.
consist of two or more elements or compounds, which are not chemically bonded.
can be seperated by
is used to seperate soluble solids from: example- a mixture of salt (soluble) and sand (insoluble)
Is used to obtain a soluble solid from a solution: example- salt crystals can e obtained from a solution of salty water
is used to obtain a solvent from a solution
Is used to seperate a different soluble, colured components of a mixture: example- in a crime scene you can see with which colour ink the murdere used
The Periodic Table
Did you know???
realised that some elements had yet to be discovered. When he created his table in 1869he left gaps to allow for their dicovery.
The elements in
are known as the
Noble gas atoms
have a full
This means that these non-metas are
, because they
need more electrons from another atom
The boiling points of the
increases down the group
The elemnts in
are known as
All atoms from
1 electron (e-)
in the outter shell
low melting and boiling points
that decrease down the group.
More reactive down the group
This is because the
gets further away from the influence of the
(The gravity of the nucleus), so it could be lost easier.
are stored under oil because they react with
oxygen and water
, including moisture in the air: e.g- Na+H2O=NaOH+H2
and are known as
are in the center of the periodic table (between groups
They can be used as
to speed up