Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (Invasion of Western Europe - Austin,…
Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
An Empire Evolves - Olivia
When the Roman Empire fell, many small kingdoms came to rule. The Franks controlled the largest kingdoms in Europe. When the first Christian king Clovis died, the Frank's rule was over what is now modern day France.
What led the Franks to be the so powerful?
By the year 700, an official with the position of the major domo had become the most powerful person in the kingdom. They officially had power over the royal houses and properties. Un-officially they led armies and made laws, they practically ruled the kingdoms. This position meant more power than the king's did, which made it almost as good a title as the king's.
Why didn't the king take responsibility and fulfill leadership?
Charles Martel held the position of major doom in 719 and held more power than the reigning king. Martel expanded their reign to the north, south, and east. He also defeated Muslim raiders in the Battle of Tours in 732. This was significant for many Christians at the time because if the Muslims had won, Europe may have become a part of the Muslim Empire. Martel was seen as a hero of the Christian religion.
Who was Martel's predecessor and how did he get the job?
After his death, Charles Martel passed his duties on to his son, Pepin the Short. Pepin wanted to be king. He expanded his reign by cooperating with the pope and on the side of the Church, he agreed to fight the Lombards who had been threatening Rome. As an exchange, the pope granted the title "king by the grace of god" to Pepin, this began the Carolingian Dynasty. They would rule the Franks from 751 to 987.
Why was Pepin so keen on becoming king, why wasn't he happy with his position?
What happened to the previously reigning king? Was he de-throned?
Invasion of Western Europe - Austin
Disruption of Trade
Trade started to stall when merchants faced invasions from both land and sea
Economy went down
Money became scarce
Downfall of Cities
Cities were abandon during the down fall of the Roman Empire
Why were cities particularly hard hit when the Roman Empire declined?
The Fall of the Roman Empire
Nobles retreated to the rural areas
Why did they have to leave when they could continue to trade between them selves
Roman cities were left without strong leadership
The population of western Europe became mostly rural
Germanic invaders overran the western half of the Roman Empire
Repeated invasions and constant warfare caused a series of changes that altered the economy, government, and culture
The Decline of Learning
The German Invaders didn't know how to read or write
They brought no knowledge to Rome
How come they the German's didn't know how to read or write?
As people fled to rule areas they stopped going to school
Most of the population was aliterate
Why did people stop going to school or learning after they fled?
Loss of a Common Language
With German's speaking with the Romans, it changed the Latin language
Even though Latin was still an official language, it was no longer understood
By the 800s, French, Spanish, and other Roman-based languages had evolved from Latin
How does one language effect a different language so much that it completely changes it?
More about the language Latin
Germans adopt Christianity - Alex
how was pope Gregory the first like a roman emperor?
what caused Christianity to spread through Europe and why was it important?
By 600, the church, with the help of Turkish rulers had converted many germanic people to christianity. Missionaries also helped spread christianity often at great risks. fear of Muslim attacks scared people into converting.
if it was so dangerous how did they protect themselves?
in order to adapt to the rural conditions the church built holy sanctums like monasteries. Monks gave up their private possessions and devoted their lives to serving god. Women who did the same would be known as nuns and would live in convents.
in 520, a monk named Benedict began writing a book containing rules for the monasteries. these rules became part of many other communities throughout Western-Europe.
Monasteries became some of the best educated communities. the opened schools, maintained libraries, and copied books. in 731, the Venerable Bede wrote the history of England which is known as one of the best historical works from the middle ages. in 600s and 700s monks made beautiful writings with ornate letters and gorgeous pictures.
in 590, Gregory the 1st was made pope. He made it so that the role of pope would go be beyond its spiritual position. under his papacy it became a worldly power involved in politics. He used church revenue for the military, helping poor people, and for building roads. He also negotiated treaties with invaders such as lombards.
according to Gregory, areas from Italy to England and Germany to Spain were for him to control. It was a holy kingdom. While Gregory's kingdom focused on religion, others focused on politics.
Gregory the 1st
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge- Courtney
In the years of upheavel between 400 and 600, small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces.
The church as an institution survived the fall of Roman Empire. During the time of political chaos, the church provided order and security.
The Concept Of Government Changes
Unlike Romans, Germanic peoples lived in small communities that were governed by unwritten rules and traditions.
Why didn't they have rules?
Every Germanic chief led a band of warriors who had pledged their loyalty to him.
At night these follower's lived in the lord's hall. He gave them food, weapons and treasure.
In battles warriors fought to death at their lord's side. They considered it a disgrace to outlive him.
But Germanic felt no obligation to obey a lord they don't know, nor would they obey an official sent to collect taxes or administer justice in the name of an emperor they never met.
How did Germanic and Roman soldiers Differ?
Clovis Rules The Franks
In the Roman Province of Gual, a Germanic people called the Franks held power.
Why did they call them that?
Their leader was Clovis. He would bring christianity to the reign.
In 496, Clovis led hi warriors against another Germanic army. Fearing defeat, he appealed to the Christian God.
The tide of the battle shifted and the Franks won. Afterwards Clovis and 3,000 of his warriors asked a bishop to baptize them.
The church in Rome welcomed Clovis's conversion and supported his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples. By 511, Clovis had united the Franks into one kingdom. The strategic alliance between Clovis's Frankish Kingdom and the church marked the start of a partnership between the two powerful forces.
Why did the church support Clovis's campaigns against other Germanic people?
Charlemange Becomes Emperor - Olivia
Pepin the short died in 786, leaving behind a strengthened Frankish kingdom to his heirs, his two sons, Carloman and Charles. After Carloman's death in 771, Charles became known as the Charlemange (Charles the great)
Charlemange built an empire greater than those known since Ancient Rome. Every summer, he commanded his armies to fight against enemies from neighboring tribes. He conquered new lands in the south and east and spread Christianity along his way. He was the first to unite Western Europe since the Roman Empire. He became the most powerful king in Western Europe.
What made Charlemagne's empire so powerful?
Did people oppose Charlemagne's rule?
In the year 800, Charlemange traveled to Rome to destroy an un-forgiving mob that attacked the pope. Out of gratitude to Charlemange, Pope Leo III crowned him emperor. This signified the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and heritage of the Roman Empire.
Why was the mob trying to take Rome?
Charlemange made his made his royal power stronger by limiting the power of other nobles. He sent out royal agents to govern his land. They made sure that powerful counts governed the country fairly. Charlemange would visit his parts of his kingdom regularly. He also ordered schools to open at palaces or monasteries. This caused Charlemagne's government to be different than any of the traditional governments of his time.
We know that Charlemagne's government was different, what was the other kingdoms at the time doing?
in 814, a year before his death, Charlemange crowned his son Louis the Pious as emperor. Louis was very religious, but not a good leader. His three sons fought for control of the empire. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun was signed. This divided the empire into three kingdoms. The Carolingian kings lost power and there was no longer any central authority. This lead to a new system of government called feudalism.
How did the brothers divide the kingdom evenly?