Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (Charlemagne Becomes Emperor…
Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Invasions of Western Europe
Nobles fled to rural areas which left cities without strong leadership. Other city dwellers left for rural areas to seek food and shelter
Germanic invaders who stormed Rome were no able to read or write. Most Romans who could had fled to rural areas.
Few people such as priests and other church officials were literate
Knowledge of Greek was important in Roman culture but that knowledge was almost lost. Few people could read Greek works of literature, science and philosophy.
Germanic tribes had rich traditions of songs and legends but they had no written language
More About Germanic Tribes
Why did the move to rural areas contribute to the decline in literacy?
Now that no one were in the cities to teach how to read or write people became uneducated and literacy became scarce among people
When the Roman Empire fell cities were abandoned
Why were cities hit particularly hard when the Roman Empire declined?
Once the Empire fell from power there was no authority so cities became unsafe and lawless.
Fall of Roman Empire
As German-speaking populations and Roman populations mixed Latin changed. While it was still an official language it was no longer understood.
By the 800's French, Spanish, and other Roman-based languages had evolved from Latin. The various languages mirrored the breakup of a once-unified empire
Constant invasions collapsed trade which destroyed Europe's economic center and money became scarce.
Germanic Kindoms Emerge
The Concept of Government Changes
Germanic Peoples lived in small communities that were governed by unwritten rules and traditions
Every German chief led a group of warriors that pledged their loyalties to him
The German chief gave them food, treasure, and weapons
Warriors believed it was a disgrace to outlive their chief
German warriors believed that they did not have any obligation to obey a king that they did not know
They also didn't obey officials sent to collect taxes or administer justice in the name of an emperor they did not know
How did Germanic and Roman Soldiers differ?
Roman soldiers were loyal to an emperor while Germanic soldiers were loyal to their chiefs and local kings/lords
The Germanic Stress on personal ties made it impossible to establish orderly government for large territories
Clovis Rules the Franks
German People called the "Franks" held power in the Roman province of Gaul
In 496, Clovis led his warriors against another Germanic army
Fearing he would lose, he prayed to the Christian God
The battle shifted and the Franks won
Clovis and 3,000 of his warriors asked to be baptized by a bishop
The Church in Rome welcomed Clovis's conversion and supported his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples
Why did the Church support Clovis's campaigns agaisnt other Germanic people?
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By 511, Clovis united the Franks into one kingdom
More about Clovis
Germans Adopt Christianity
The govt. went along with religion, so the officials would spread their religion to the country's people.
Monasteries were created for the monks and nuns that devoted their lives to Christianity.
Italian Monk names Benedict, and his sister, the nun Scholastica, created a set of strict rules that monasteries and monks/nuns must follow.
"Monks dedicated their lives to prayer and good works."
Monasteries devoted a lot of time to science and art.
They created libraries and made copies of books.
Monasteries ran schools.
They made copies of famous art and written texts.
More info on Monks and Nuns of the Middle Ages
590 - Gregory the Great becomes pope.
He was like a Roman Emperor because he gave a lot more power to his position as the pope besides just being in charge of the religion aspect of society.
He involved religion into the govt.
He placed the Pope's Palace in the middle of Rome.
Used church money to "raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor"
He negotiated peace treaties between warring groups that challenged Rome.
He used his influence on the vast empire to spread Christianity to many, many places.
Was there no emperor at the time of Gregory the Great?
More in-depth History of Gregory the Great
Missionaries spread Christianity all around the "new" Roman Empire. They were important because they could quickly spread the Christian ideas around the land.
The missionaries would risk their lives to spread their religion and beliefs.
What would make the life of a missionary so hard during that time? - It might have been because people tend to not react well to change.
An Empire Evolves
After the Roman Empire dissolved, small kingdoms formed all over Europe
The Franks controlled the largest and strongest of Europe's kingdoms
Charles Martel Emerges
By 700, the mayor of the palace (major domo) had become the most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom
He was officially in charge of the royal households and estates
He unofficially led armies and made policy
In 719, Charles Martel (the mayor of the palace) held more power than the king
He extended the Frank's reign to the north, south, and east
He defeated Muslim raiders from Spain in the Battle of Tours in 732
In 741, Charles Martel passed on his power to his son, Pepin the Short
Pepin wanted to be king and he shrewdly cooperated with the Pope
Pepin agreed to fight the Lombards, who had invaded Italy and threatened Rome, and the Pope anointed Pepin "king by the grace of God" in exchange
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How did Pepin the Short expand the authority he had inherited?
He worked to achieve the title of king
Why might someone be content with the title major domo rather than seeking crowned king?
They may be content with this title because the major domo held more power than the king
Charlemagne Becomes Emperor
Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule
Charlemagne spread Christianity and reunited Europe.
By the year 800, Charlemagne's empire was larger than the Byzantine Empire.
He traveled to Rome to stop a mob that attacked the Pope.
Pope Leo III crowned him "Roman Emperor" signaling the joining of Germanic power, the church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire
Charlemagne built an empire greater than ancient Rome
Every summer he led attacks on surrounding enemies.
He fought Muslims in Spain and other tribes from Germanic Kingdoms.
He conquered new lands from the south and east.
Charlemagne Leads a Revival
Charlemagne strengthened his power by limiting the authority of the nobles
He sent out royal agents to govern the empire.
The governors would make sure that the counts (powerful land owners) governed their counties justly
Charlemagne would often visit every part of the kingdom
He kept a close watch on the management of his estates which was the source of the Carolingian wealth and power.
He encouraged learning
Charlemagne would surround himself with scholarly people and opened a palace school.
He also ordered monasteries to create schools to train future monks and priests
Charlemagne Becomes Emperor
Pepin the Short died in 768
He left a a strengthened Frankish kingdom to his 2 sons, Carloman and Charles
After Carloman died in 771, Charles the Great (Charlemagne) ruled the whole kingdom. He was 6 feet and 4 inches tall.
More About Pepin the Short
Charlemagne crowned his son, Louis the Pious, as emperor.
Louis was religious but an ineffective ruler.
He left 3 sons to fight for control of the Empire.
They signed the Treaty of Verdun to divide the kingdom into 3 parts.
More About Louis the Pious
In the painting, What do the sword and the cross symbolize?
That Charlemagne's power came from his military might and the pope.
How did Charlemagne challenge traditional Germanic gov?
He centralized power.
Downfall of Cities
The Decline of Learning
Loss of Common Language
Disruption of Trade