Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Germans Adopt Christianity
Many people converted to Christianity and settled in Rome's former lands
Missionaries, the Church, and Frankish rulers spread Christianity
Monasteries, Convents, and Manuscripts
: religious communities
: Christian men who gave up their possessions to devote their lives to God and good works
: Christian women who gave up their possessions to devote their lives to God and good works
Benedict (Italian monk) wrote a book with strict rules for monasteries, and his sister used the same rules for women
Monks opened schools, libraries, copied books, and made decorated religious writings
The decorated religious writings preserved Rome's heritage
Monks and Nuns
Papal Power Expands Under Gregory I
Gregory I was the pope of the Church in Rome
The papacy became a secular and became the center of Roman government
: power involved in politics
Gregory I liked the idea of a Christendom
How was Pope Gregory I like a Roman Emperor?
He was like a Roman Emperor because he had a lot of power and his papacy was the center of government for the Romans
: a spiritual kingdom ruled by a pope
What caused Christianity to spread through Europe and why was it important?
Clovis' wife urged him to become a Christian and then his warriors became Christians too. It spread by the use of politics, it was important because it changed how life was.
Invasions of Western Europe
Germanic invaders overran the western half of the Roman Empire
Repeated Invasion and warfare caused changes that changed the economy, government, and culture
Disruption of Trade
Merchants faced invasions from land and sea which cause their business to fall
Destroyed Europe's cities as economic centers and money became scarce
Downfall of Cities
Because of the fall of the Roman Empire, cities were abandoned as centers of administration
Why were cities particularly hard hit when the Roman Empire declined?
This was because cities were centers for trade, their government failed, and city dwellers moved to the countryside
As Roman trade and government collapsed, nobles left to rural areas and Roman cities were left without leadership
Other people fled to the countryside and grew their own food
Population of Western Europe became rural
How did this affect Roman cities?
Decline of Learning
Germanic invaders couldn't read or write and the level of learning dropped after Roman families left for rural areas
Few people except priests and church officials were literate
Knowledge of Greek was almost lost
The Germanic tribes had a rich oral tradition of songs and legends but had no written language
Why did the move to rural areas contribute to a decline in literacy?
This was because Germanic invaders couldn't read or write and they only had an oral language. They were then assimilated together which stopped the Romans from teaching their language
Loss of a Common Language
Latin changed as German and Roman population mixed and new dialects were developed
While this language was official, it was no longer understood
By the 800s, French, Spanish, and other Roman-based languages evolved from Latin
The creation of many languages showed the breakup of a once-unified empire
Is this language still used today?
Loss of Language
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
The Concept of Government Changes
Family ties and personal loyalty kept Germanic society together
Germanic people lived in small communities and had unwritten laws and traditions unlike the Romans
Germanic warriors were very loyal to their chief, didn't obey officials they didn't know
How did Germanic and Roman Soldiers differ?
They were different because Germanic Soldiers only obeyed leaders they knew, while the Roman Soldiers always obeyed their emperor even if they didn't know them.
Clovis Rules the Franks
In Gaul (Roman province), the Franks (Germanic) held power
The leader was Clovis
Clovis and his warriors converted to Christianity
Clovis united the Franks into one kingdom
Why did the Church support Clovis's campaigns against other Germanic people?
The Church supported him because they thought that since he converted his warriors to Christianity, he would be able to convert others
An Empire Evolves
Charles Martel Emerges
By 700, an official known as the major domo, or mayor of the palace, had become the most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom.
The mayor of the palace in 719, Charles Martel held more power than the king. Charles Martel extended the Franks’ reign to the north, south, and east.
At his death, Charles Martel passed on his power to his son, Pepin the Short. Pepin wanted to be king. He shrewdly cooperated with the pope.
Charles Martel defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours in?
What is the holy roman empire?
loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806
After the Roman Empire dissolved, small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe. For example, England splintered into seven tiny kingdoms.