Module 3: How Science Progresses (Theory-Data Cycle) (ATTACHMENT THEORY…
Module 3: How Science Progresses (Theory-Data Cycle)
Thinking systematically about a problem (i.e. Russian Dolls)
ATTACHMENT THEORY (Modern):
Love bond with parents = safe base, self-worth, ideas about relationship
CUPBOARD THEORY (Behaviourist):
Baby's hungry > Mum's breast > Fed > Hunger drive relieved > Baby attaches to Mum's breast (1) and THEN Mum (2); About Food.
CONTACT COMFORT THEORY (Harlow):
Mum = nice, safe feeling of loving + positive interaction for baby
Diabolical Apparatus (Fear > Contact with Mum changes personality > Threatens diabolical apparatus)
Cloth = 17-18 hrs, Wire = >1 hr (P: Variable of contact comfort overshadowed other variables - including nursing)
New/Strange Place > Fear > Cloth Mother > Builds up affection + security > Body relaxes, fear disappears > Monkey can explore; Did NOT choose Wire Mother in isolation.
*Came up with alternate idea about attachment > Tested with 3 different experiments, different predictions + set-ups
T: Contact comfort critical to attachment > H(1): CC = better attachment to Mum than food > H(0): It won't happen > P: If H(1) true, when given choice, baby monkeys will spend more time with Cloth than Wire
Statement(s) that describe the general principle of how variables relate to one another
Stating what specific outcome you expect, given that your theory is true (derived from theory) > Right + Wrong (to avoid Conf Bias)
Specific ideas about what outcomes you expect to happen in a specific experiment (derived from hypotheses)
Set of observations
1. SUPPORTED BY DATA
b. CONVERGING EVIDENCE
(across labs, methodologies) "Culture of Honour Theory" (People in American South [Herders] more aggressive than Northeners [Agriculturist] to being insulted: Due to historical gaining of income > Protect) > History of Slavery (tested: slavery makes no difference) > South is HOT > field experiments, lab experiments >> Replicated same findings with different results = Converging Evidence
> Replication Crisis "File Drawer Problem" Failure to replicate doesn't always mean it's wrong.
Data the disconfirms your theory
Never 100% prove something (e.g. Karl Popper's Swans). No guarantees, therefore never sure. Even best theories can be disproved at any moment.
Freudian theories (unconsciousness), Stanovich's Green Men, Facilitated Communication
"All other things being equal, simplest solution is the best one."
Simple = no violations of rules about the world, fewest statements/clauses/laws
Otherwise, choose 'more complex' theory that explains the data