Shingle Style and American Arts and Crafts Melinda Cardenas FCS 412
Shingle Style and American Arts and Crafts
The Shingle Style and the American Arts and Crafts movement both adopt the styles, forms and details of the Middle Ages.
Design principles: asymmetry, verticality, and simplicity. Looks to the past for inspiration but still designing for the present.
Shingle Style: Shingles cover all or nearly all wall surfaces, columns, and details.
-Asymmetry, horizontal emphasis, irregular massing, a broad gable or gables on one or more faces, towers, bay windows, porches and multiple roofs.
American Arts and Crafts: A naturalistic approach to design is seen throughout the appearance of the architecture and designs.
Motifs: Motifs of the period are flowers, trees, foliage, animals, geometric motifs, Gothic details, and Oriental images.
Historical and Social
Evolves from England's Colonial style mixed with English Queen Anne Style. It follows the principles of the English Arts and Crafts movement, but interprets a more individualistic approach and more diverse interpretations. The movement wanted to expand the elite and middle class.
American Arts and Crafts varies from regions of the country and by individual designers, builders, and entrepreneurs, or mail-order catalogs. Craftsman furniture was given by Gustav Stickley, Prairie houses in Illinois by Frank Lloyd Wright, and houses designed by the Greene Brothers. The overall idea of this movement was based on simplicity and handmade character.
A culture of reform dominates the United States during the last two decades of the 19th century. Reformers loo for ways to bring about change to architecture and decorative arts.
The American Arts and Crafts movement focuses less on the individual worker. The movement continues its efforts to transform the family and the individual by reforming the home and its interiors.
Social reform includes guilds, cooperatives, and utopian communities. More people have access to to produce craftsman inspired furnishings, which transforms their lives. People sought after the simplicity of life and returned to the ideas of nature.
Architecture: Shingle Style.
The style reflects past ideas of feedom of expression, informality, and continuity of texture
Old Faithful Lodge
The American Shingle Style incorporates shingles, irregularity, and a picturesque image from Queen Anne, gambrel roofs, and Palladian windows from New England Colonial buildings; Romanesque Revival; and free flowing space and structural emphasis from Japan. Art historian Vincent Scully gives it the name Shingle Style in 1955. The shingle style has no expression in interiors and furniture.
Facades: Usually asymmetrical and had less textures than the Queen Anne style
Architecture: American Arts and Crafts.
Craftsman Houses: Homes by Gustav Stickley: The expression of structure and simple rustic materials used in the state or region it was made.
Prairie Houses, Craftsman houses, and bungalow houses were the three main types of homes during this time.
derives from English principles but differs in the cohesiveness that England had. America produces a wider variety of expression arising from a strong emphasis of individuality. Each region and individual interprets honesty of structure, harmony with the environment, good craftsmanship, and simplicity in its own fashion
Frank Lloyd Wright House and Studio
Sears Kit house
The roots for this style are adapted from the Queen Anne Style from England and architecture from 17th century buildings. Designers strive to create order and unity within complex architectural form by using shingles to unify irregular shapes and massing.
American Arts and Crafts: Shared principles that unified style: honesty, simplicity, regionalism, vernacular traditions, and harmony with the landscape. American designers wanted to give their unique individual expression to their work.
Americans looked to the preindustrial past in order to find inspiration for their designs.
Ideas from this movement are adopted from France, the Beaux Arts movement, Japan, and the Art Nouveau and other European movements. Products are mass produced making it available to more people and are machine made
Low ceiling height, ceiling divided into bays, lighting integrated into architecture, strong horizontal emphasis highlights human scale, tall backs on chairs create a "room within a room" effect, built in storage for horizontal emphasis.