CAUSES OF THE 1905 REVOLUTION (National Minorities (e.g Finns, Poles, Jews…
CAUSES OF THE 1905 REVOLUTION
e.g Finns, Poles, Jews, had long term discontent
They wanted more independence and autonomy
They called for an end to the policy of Russification
Middle class liberals wanted to partake in government and have a voice in how the country would be governed
Students protested against repressive government control
They wanted some form of elected national assembly instead of the Tsar deciding everything
wanted peasant revolution to create socialism based around peasant communes
wanted urban working classes to stage a revolution to create a socialist state then communism
Defeats at land and at sea shocked the Russian people and meant they perceived the Tsar's government as incompetent
- lost Port Arthur
The war caused shortages of food and fuel, high prices and unemployment
Witte's economic policy
Under Witte's industrialisation policy, urban workers and peasants faced low wages and high taxes
Poor harvests in 1900 and 1902 lead to food shortages and starvation
Economic decline after 1902 led to high levels of unemployment and social tension in towns
Nicholas II very conservative having been influenced by his reactionary father. He would not consider any reforms or steps towards any form of constitutional monarchy
The people were denied basic freedoms such as freedom of press, freedom to form political parties or have trade unions.
Any opposition to the regime was dealt with quickly by the Okhrana, such as Lenin's brother who was executed for participating in underground political activities.
Weak, indecisive Tsar
Peasants and workers
Suffered periodic famines
Increasing peasant population was putting more pressure on land
Their grievances included high taxes, redemption payments on land and need for more land.
Long hours, low pay and terrible working and living conditions lead to discontent among factory workers and caused multiple strikes throughout 1905
Sunday 22nd January 1905, the Tsar's troops fired on peaceful demonstrators at the Winter palace.
This caused the breakout of strikes and riots across the country in protest to the Tsarist regime.
Lead by the radical priest Gregory Gapon