Psychology Unit 2: Research Methods - Thinking Critically with…
Psychology Unit 2: Research Methods - Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
How is Psychology valid?
Hindsight Bias- the tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it.
Overconfidence- We think we know more then we do and we tend to be to be more confident than correct
Perceiving Order in Random Events- We are prone to perceive patterns. Even in random data we find a order.
Critical Thinking- thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, examines assumptions, assesses the source, discerns hidden values, and assesses conclusions.
The language of scientific research
Theory- explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
Hypothesis- a testable prediction often implied by a theory
Operational definition- carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.
Generalizability- The degree to which results from a study can be applied to different types of population.
Population (N)- Everyone who could be in a study.
Sample (n)- A subset of the population actually in the survey.
Random sample- Everyone has an equal shot of selection.
Representative: characteristics of the sample reflect the population.
Sampling bias- choosing people who will give data you want.
Corelation does not equal causation
Wording effect- The way one words a question can alter the respondent's answer
Ethics in Psychology
Fair treatment of animals
Researches must include
Safeguard human participant's well-being with:
Attitudes of behavior and gender
Shared human kinships result with underlying processes and principles in study
Mainly in service of humanity in research
Personal values tend to effect:
Choice of research topics
Labels for behavior
Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life
Numerical Data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of Central tendency and measures of variation
A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution.
The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
A representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average.
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
aka Normal Distribution
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (about 68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.
95% and 99.7%
Numerical data that allow one to generalize - to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population.
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
Correlation and Experimentation
A measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other.
A statistical index of the relationship between two variables (from -1.0 to +1.0).
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental processes (the dependent variable). By random assignment assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant variables.
In an experiment, the group exposed to the experiment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups.
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug - evaluation studies.
[pluh-SEE-bo; "I shall please] Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes in an active agent.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
The extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to do.