English Language Linguistics Key words - Year 1. (Lexis/ Semantics.…
English Language Linguistics Key words - Year 1.
Register is split into Formal and Informal Register.
Halliday identified 3 main influences on the type of language we use:
1) Field = This the topic/subject we are talking/writing about, commonly called Field of Discourse.
E.G: An article about football with use terms such as player and off-side.
2) Manner = This is the relationship between the participants (Speaker/writer and reader/listener). We change this register depending on who we talk to, we would talk formally in a presentation and informally in a social situation.
3) Mode = This is the type of communication. We see different type of this when we look at the difference between written and spoken modes. A letter from the college about attendance would use language as a phone call for the same purpose.
Informal register is normally found in text messages, journals, emails between friends etc. We use Informal register when we are talking to someone we know well and when we are in informal situations.
Formal register is normally is found in letters, books, broad sheet newspapers, emails between professional colleagues etc. We use Formal Register when we are in formal situations.
Jargon - Linguistic experts often call it field - specific lexis.
special words or expressions used by a profession or group that are difficult for others to understand.
Jargon is full of imprecise terms and exaggeration, which excludes and intimidates outsiders.
Emotive lexis - describes words and phrases meant to evoke an emotional response to a subject.
These are words that trigger feelings of emotion when said. Words like:
But when words are juxtaposed with another, one word becomes more emotive, like:
Slang language: a type of language consisting of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal, are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to a particular context or group of people.
Purpose of Slang: efficient and effective communication.
Difference between Jargon and Slang: slang is usually limited by language, Jargon is limited by specialization.
Taboo Lexis - something that is forbidden, or deemed unacceptable by society. Any language that is seen as inappropriate or offensive.
Lexical change/Neologisms: Neologisms are new words that are normally formed by:
1) Borrowing/loans - usually from foreign languages. Eg: Karaoke (Japan).
2) Compounding - Simply putting whole words together. Eg: Upbeat, takeover.
3)Blending - mixing only parts of different words together. Eg: brunch, taken from breakfast and lunch.
4) Derivation - Words that are formed through acronyms. Eg: Nasa, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
5) Abbreviation - Using he shortened forms of words. Eg: Bike from Bicycle.
6) Root creating/Coining: Where brand new words are invented. Eg: Nerd and Blurb.
7) Conversion - Where a word is modified from one word class to another. Eg: hammer (noun) changes to a verb, to get hammered.
8) Affixation - Where existing words are modified by adding prefixes or suffies to create new words. Eg: non-smoker.
9) Back formation - A specific type of shortening where a word of one type (usually a noun) is changed into another (often a verb). Eg: Edit from Editor.
10) Eponym - Where a new word i created from a shared cultural meaning to do with a specific person's name. Often dependent upon who is famous/popular at any given time. Eg: London Cockney rhyming slang of DJ Pete Tong for "Wrong".
11) Archaism/ weakening - Where a word falls out of use, becomes seen as old fashioned/ outmoded. Eg: jolly.
This is the meanings of words.
Denotation = the denotation of a wrd is simply its literal dictionary definiton. Eg: To Fly denotes "To Travel By Air".
Connotation = The connotation of a word is more than its literal dictionary definition. It is the cultural/emotional associations we make with a particular work. Some words have positive connotations, others have negative connotations.
The meanings of words are flexible and can have different layers of meaning, depending on things like context and audience.
-Semantic Ambiguity = words with multiple meanings.
Semantic/ Lexical fields: the deliberate grouping of words with related meaning in a text.
Writers do this to manipulate the response of the reader.
Synonyms = a word or phrase with similar meanings to another specific word.
Antonym = a word with an opposite meaning to a
Metaphors = an image in words. A description of something that is not literal.
They are normally ready-made phrases hat are a familiar part of our everyday experiences. They are used to enhance or add stronger meanings to something. It is when you say something is something.
Simile = a comparative image, comparing one thing to another.
This normally uses words such as "Like and "as".
Idioms = an expression that cannot be understood from the meanings of the individual words that comprise it.
these are cultural cliches, or common phrases that everyone uses as a qucik way of explaining or showing understanding. They require a shared cultural knowledge to understand them.
Collocation = pairs of words that are commonly found alongside each other.
Just like Idioms, Collocation requires a shared cultural meaning.
Eg: done and dusted.
Short Stories - Beginnings.
Some ways in which are possible to begin stories are:
The writer launches straight into the narrative.
The writer sets the scene by giving explicit background information.
Sociolect, Idiolect & Context.