2.5.6 Adapter Card AND 2.6 Software (Adapter Card (• An adapter card, or…
2.5.6 Adapter Card AND 2.6 Software
• An adapter card, or expansion card, is a circuit
board that enhances functions of the
component of a system unit and/or provides
connections to peripherals.
– Examples of peripherals: modem, printer, scanner,
• can be inserted into an expansion slot or
adapter card slot on a motherboard
• Connects to USB devices.
• USB adapter cards either add USB
functionality, or add extra ports to your
• Connects a monitor.
• Converts computer output into a video signal
that travels through a cable to the monitor.
• Also called display card, or graphics card.
• Connects microphone, or speakers.
• Enhances the sound generating capabilities of
a personal computer by allowing sound to be
input through a microphone and output
through external speakers or headphones.
• Connects to a musical instruments such as an
• To connect to other computers and
peripherals via a network cable.
• Some network interface cards also allows
TV Tuner Card
• Allows television signals to be received by a
• Allows viewing of television channels on the
• Connects to other computers through
telephone lines, cable television lines, or other
• A modem is a communications device that
allows a computer to send and receive data
through telephone lines, other cables, or
through radio signals.
PC-to-TV converter Card
• Connects a television.
• Allows viewing of computer output on a
• Connects to FireWire devices.
• FireWire devices are devices that require
faster data transmission speed such as digital
video cameras, laser printers, and DVD drives.
2.6.1 System Software
• Software is a series of instructions that tells a
computer what tasks to perform and how to
• Some software are proprietary while others
• Proprietary software
– Software that are exclusive property of their
developers, and cannot be copied or distributed
without complying with their licensing
• Open-source software
– Software that is available free of charge with its
source code for modification and redistribution.
Types of Software
– Programs that control or maintain the operations
of a computer and its devices.
– Programs designed to make users more
productive and assist them with personal tasks.
– A program that performs a specific task related to
the management of computer functions and
• A utility program is a type of system software
that performs tasks related to the
maintenance of computer operations and
• Some utility programs are built-in (included in
OS) and others are stand-alone (installed
• Antivirus program is a utility program that
protects a computer against malware such as
virus, worm, and trojan horse.
– Avira Antivirus
– Kaspersky Antivirus
– BitDefender Antivirus
Spyware and Adware remover
• Spyware/Adware remover is a utility program
that detects and deletes spyware/adware.
– Spyware is a program placed on a computer
without the user’s knowledge that secretly
collects information about the user.
– Adware is a software that displays unwanted ads
when a user is online, collects marketing data and
other information without the user's knowledge
– Spyware Doctor, Adware Doctor
• File compression is a utility program that
shrinks the size of files.
• Files are compressed to free up space on
storage media, or to attach in email.
• Compressed files sometimes are called zipped
– WinZip, WinRAR, Pkzip
• Disk defragmenter is a utility program that
reorganizes files and unused space on a hard
disk so that OS access data more quickly and
program runs faster.
• Disk cleanup is a utility program that searches
for and removes unnecessary files.
• Examples of unnecessary files are downloaded
program files, temporary Internet files,
deleted files, or unused program files.
– Windows Disk Cleanup
– Clean Master
Backup and Restore
• A backup utility allows users to copy files to
another storage medium.
• A restore utility reverses the process and
returns backed up files to their original form.
• File manager is a utility program that performs
functions related to file management, such as:
– Displaying a list of files
– Organizing files in folders
– Copying, renaming, deleting, moving, and sorting
files and folders
– Creating shortcuts
• Windows Explorer is a file manager built-in
– A set of programs that coordinates all the
activities among computer hardware devices.
• The most important program on a computer.
• Manages the computer hardware, and all the
other programs in a computer.
• Performs various functions or basic tasks
related to managing hardware or software and
providing services to user.
• Every computer, tablet, and smartphone
includes an operating system that provides
basic functionality for the device.
• An operating system that resides on a server,
designed specifically to support a network.
• Examples of server OS:
– Windows Server 2008
• An operating system that resides on a ROM
chip for use on mobile devices such as
• Examples of mobile OS:
– Windows embedded CE
– Windows Mobile
– Symbian OS
• A complete operating system that works on a
desktop computer, notebook computer, or
mobile computing device.
• Examples of stand-alone OS:
– Mac OS
Functions of Operating System
• Start and shut down a computer
• Provide user interface
• Manage programs
• Manage memory
• Coordinate tasks
• Configure devices • Establish internet connection
• Monitor performance
• Provide file management and other built-in
• Update software automatically
• Control a network
• Administer security
2.6.2 Application Software
• Application software is programs designed to
make users more productive and assist them
with personal tasks.
• Application software allows users to:
– Create letters, memos, reports, and other
– Develop multimedia presentations
– Design Web pages and diagrams
– Draw and edit images
– Record and enhance audio and video clips
– Play single player or multiplayer games
– Compose e-mail messages and instant messages
• An application software that allows users to
create visual aids for presentations to
communicate ideas, messages, and other
information to a group.
• Usage - to create a presentation for teaching,
marketing or tourist information.
– Microsoft PowerPoint (Proprietary)
– Impress (Open source)
• A software that allows user to create access
and manage a database.
– Database is a collection of data organized in a
manner that allows access, retrieval and use of
• Usage - to create student database,
employees database or book database.
– Microsoft Access (Proprietary)
– Base (Open source)
• An application software that allows user to
organize data in rows and columns and to
perform calculations on the data.
• Usage - to create budget summaries, income
statements or calculate students marks.
– Microsoft Excel (Proprietary)
– Calc (Open source)
• A Web browser, or browser, is an application
software that allows users to access and view
– Internet Explorer (Proprietary)
– Firefox (Open source)
– Opera (Open source)
– Safari (Open source)
– Google Chrome (Open source)
Word Processing Software
• An application software that allows users to
create and manipulate documents containing
mostly text and sometimes graphics.
• Usage - to create letters, brochures, reports,
newsletters, or journals.
– Microsoft Word (Proprietary software)
– Writer (Open-source software)