Causes of the Sino-Soviet Split (National Interests/ Rivalry (Competition…
Causes of the Sino-Soviet Split
Mao saw Khrushchev's 'peaceful coexistence' as an abandonment of the struggle against the capitalist imperialism.
Mao believed that the USSR was a revisionist state that attempted to reconcile its ideological differences with the USA. Mao saw the USSR was an imperialist state.
The ideological difference in which country was more correct of the interpretation of Marxism-Leninism. Created a contest between Mao and Khrushchev on who was the true leader of communism.
National Interests/ Rivalry
The Malinovsky Incident, 1964. Talks in Moscow where the soviet defence minster, Rodion Malinovsky. Told Chinese delegate, Marshal He Long, that the Chinese should get rid of Mao. This caused great disgrace against the Chinese and the talks were immediately collapsed.
Russia withdraws technological aid from China by removing experts in 1960. Therefore they would not get the knowledge of nuclear weaponry.
The soviets did not speak to China when going into Cuba in 1962, even though they were partners.
Soviets supporting India in its border dispute with China in 1959.
In April 1965, USSR called a meeting with China and North Vietnam to discuss a collective response against the US in Vietnam. Mao declined as he wanted Vietnam to remain dependant on China and have less involvement with the soviets.
By October 1964, The Chinese had exploded their first atomic bomb.
The first nuclear missile was launched in October 1966, and the first hydrogen bomb was exploded in June 1967. This meant that China had become a force to be reckoned with.
Competition for allies: Both China and Russia were fighting for allies, to build a powerful bloc.
China got support from the maverick state of Albania. After the 1960 Moscow conference, China began branching out to more socialist states. The Burmese and Malayan communist parties quickly followed.
In 1963, it was revealed that China had been engaging in secret (but unsuccessful) diplomacy to lure Poland, Hungary and East Germany away from the USSR.
In 1964, Romania adopted a neutral position in the Sino-Soviet conflict.
In 1964, China called for the return of territory that it claimed the USSR had occupied historically, particularly parts of Siberia. Khrushchev rejected.
Increasing hostility between the two, the USSR decided to station military forces in Mongolia and Eastern Kazakhstan in February 1967.
Brezhnev said in a key party in June 1969 'we assume that the stronger the defence of our borders, the less danger there is of a really serious military confrontation on our eastern frontier'.
China adopted a strategy named 'active defence', based on ,limited aggression designed to deter any soviet initial aggression. On 2nd of March 1969, a soviet border patrol near ZhenBao Island was ambushed by Chinese forces. A second incident happened on the frontier region of Xinjiang in August 1969.
In march 1969, open conflict broke out when the Chinese ambushed a soviet patrol on the Ussuri river. The soviets retaliated and killed 800 Chinese soldiers.
Mao certainly believed in the use of nuclear weapons. He told Khrushchev that he should have nuked USA in Cuba, as they were "paper tigers". He also criticised Khrushchev pulling out of Cuba, it was a betrayal of the Cuban Revolution.
Mao was obsessed with the idea that the USSR was a military threat to China.
In the Cultural Revolution, Mao used the frenzy displayed by his enthusiastic young followers in the Chinese Red Guard to intimidate the USSR. The red guard besieged to Soviet Union's embassy in Beijing.
Deng Xiao-ping, leader of China between 1978-1992 "it was not because of the ideological disputes.. the basic problem was that the Chinese were not treated as equals and felt humiliated".
When Khrushchev denounces Stalin as a 'criminal' in a 4-hour secret speech at twentieth congress of soviet communist party. Mao sees the this condemnation as an insult to not only Stalin but a fear for his own form of communism.
Mao criticised the meekness of soviet actions in Algeria during the 1954-62 Algerian war of independence against the French, along with the continued involvement of the soviets in Vietnam.
This criticism carried on when the soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968 to crush the Prague Spring.