THE VICTORIAN AGE
THE VICTORIAN AGE
ADAMS PROPOSES 3 PHASES IN THE V.A.
1851- the 1880's (DISAPPOINTMENT)
the GREAT EXPECTATIONS proved false
the 1880's-1901 (DESPAIR)
the disappointment became despair
1837-1851 (TRIUMPH AND ENTHUSASM)
in the 1851 the GREAT EXHIBITION was held in the CRYSTAL PALACE, in LONDON
it is the top of the VICTORIAN TRIUMPH; it's England showing off to the world its achievements in both sciences and humanities
ADAMS distingueshes internal reasons and external reasons for each phase
THE BRITISH EMPIRE being to creak and crumbles down
starting from the IRLAND
IN IRLAND THERE WAS THE POTATOES FAMINE
irish people died of hunger and they expected that ENGLAND helped them
ENGLAND let that they died and the IRISH would never forget it
1 more item...
1848 MARX AND ENGLES "THE MANIFESTO OF THE COMUNISTIC PARTY"
it broke the VICTORIAN COMPROMISE
it's directly addressed to the working class.
the message is " you are being exploited ".
MARX made them politically conscious by the capitalists who take the fruit of their work and fatigue and simply leave them the dregs to live on
the message is " it's your right and your duty to rebel and violently destroy the capitalistic system
second conseguence : ORGANIZATION OFTHE UNIONS
first conseguence : SPONTANEUS VIOLENT RIOTS
1859 DARWIN'S "THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIES"
it broke the BLIND FAITH IN SCIENCE: he made undisputably clear that science wuold never provide the answer of the human existence
science (reason and facts)
religion (based on faith and irrational)
the BRITISH EMPIRE
ENGLAND had a lot of colonies
ENGLAND ruled the world
ENGLAND had a "moral alibi" (ROBINSON CRUSOE)
THE VICTORIAN COMPROMISE
supported by the intellectuals of the time, by poets, by Writers....
the ENGLISH SOCIETY was made up of 3 classes
INDUSTRIAL WORKING CLASS (terrible condition of living)
INTELLECTUAL UPPER MIDDLECLASS
(the first 2 had the political power)
this potentially explosive tension remained subdued (social peace)
in general, they believed that the terrible conditions of living of the working class was the necessary price to pay to be the best possible societyin the world
BLIND FAITH IN SCIENCE
science would eventually provide the answer to the mistery of human existence
it's a substitute for religion
end of the ROMANTICISM
she nominates prime ministers
they make England the greatest power in the world
the KEY WORD of this age is DEMOCRATIZATION
from the 1837 to the 1901 through three reform acts, by the end of the universal suffrage, was achieved
VICTORIA was HANNOVER, she married prince ALBERT, a german prince (gothe-saxburg)