Introduction to Operating System
Introduction to Operating System
Basic Function of OS :<3:
:pencil2: Booting the computer.
:pencil2: Managing the various peripheral devices.
:pencil2: Provides a user interface.
:pencil2: Handles system resources.
:pencil2: Provides file management.
:pencil2: Provides security management.
:pencil2: Program execution.
:pencil2: I/O operation.
CONCEPTS IN RELATION TO OPERATING SYSTEM :<3:
:red_flag: 1. Multitasking
:star: Multitasking is the concurrent or inserted execution of two or more jobs by a single CPU.
:star: Multitasking is a method where mutiple tasks (knowns as processes) share common processing resources.
:star: allow many more task to be run there are CPUs.
:star: The act switching the processor from one process to another process.
:star: Example : Multitasking is a result of context switching.
:red_flag: 2. Multiprogramming
:star: Multiprogramming allows more processes to be available for execution at one time.
:star: The concept of loading many programs at one time to share a single CPU .
:star: A technique that allows a single processor to process several programs residing simultaneous in main memory.
:star: The ability of the OS to have multiple programs in memory which are ready for execution.
:red_flag: 3. Time Sharing
:star: Time sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multitasking.
:star: Allow a large number of users to interact concurrently with a single computer can lowered the cost providing computing capability.
:red_flag: 4. Buffering
:star: A buffer is a memory area that stores data while they are being transferred between two devices or between a device and an applcation. Buffering is done for three reasons:
:check: To copes with a speed mismatch between producer and consumer of a stream data.
:check: To adapt between devices that have different data-transfer sizes.
:red_flag: 5. Spooling
:star: Spool is an acronym for simultaneous peripheral operation on-line.
:star: Send data that is intended for printing or processing on a peripheral device to an intermediate store.
:star: A cache is a temporary storage area.
:star: Caching improves access time and reduces data traffic to data sources that have limited throughput.
:explode: EXAMPLE = Track Cache - Cache used in many hard disks.
Database Cache - Cache used by a database management system.
File System Cache - Cache used by an operating system for disk data.
VARIOUS TYPE OF OS STRUCTURE :<3:
:check: This system considered as " The big mess " because this structure is no structure actually
:check: The components of monolithic system are unorganized.
:check: Any module can call any other module without any reservation.
:check: Component in microkernel communicate directly with one another.
:check: Microkernel validate message , passes them between the components and grant access to hardware.
:explode: EXAMPLE = C-DAC microkernel , Mach , Windows NT , Chorus.
:check: This approach breaks up the operating system into different layers.
:check:This allows implement to change the inner workings, and increases modularity.
:check: As long as the external interfave of the routines do not change , developers have more freedom which is the inner workings of the routines.
Networked and Distributed.
:check: A network operating system (NOS) is a software is a software program that controls other software and hardware that runs on a network.
:check: A computer network can consist of a wireless network , local area network (LAN) , a wide area network (WAN) , or even two or three computer network.
:check: The heart of these network , however , is the network operating system.
INTERFACES OF OPERATING SYSTEM :<3:
:tada: Command Line
:star: The command-line interface or command interpreter allows users to directly enter commands that are to be performed by the operating system.
:star: Many of the commands given at this level manipulate files : create , delete , list , print , copy , execute , and so on .
:explode: EXAMPLE = MS-DOS and UNIX.
:tada: Voice Actuated
:star: A voice command devide is a devide controlled by means of the human voice.
:star: By removing the need to use buttons , dials and switches , consumers can easily operate appliances with their hands full or while doing other tasks.
:explode: EXAMPLE : Microsoft Voice Command for PDAs, Speech recognition in operating systems such as Windows Vista and Mac OS X Dragon Naturally Speaking for Windows.
Voice command mobile phone : iPhone
:tada: Graphical User Interface (GUI)
:star: User-friendly graphical user interface allows provides a mouse-based window-and-menu system as an interface.
:star: A GUI provides a desktop metaphor where the mouse is moved to position its pointer on images, or icons, on the screen (the desktop) that represent programs, files, directories, and system functions.
:tada: Web Form
:star: A web form on a web page allows a auser to enter data that is sent to a server for processing.
:explode: EXAMPLE : Webforms can be used to enter shipping or credit card data to order a product or can be used to retrieve data.
VARIOUS ARCHITECTURE OPERATING SYSTEM . :<3:
Single Processor System.
:star: A single processor is one which the system has single CPU.
:star: Only one process can run at a time other processes must wait until CPU becomes free it means that no more than a process can run in a single processor system.
:star: A computer system in which two or more CPUs share full access to a common RAM.
:star: Multiprocessors divide into = Hardware , OS , Synchronization and Scheduling.
:star: Allows two or more system to share storage.
:star: Usually performed to provide high availability. A label of cluster software runs on cluster nodes. Each nodes can monitor one or more nodes over the LAN.
COMPONENT OF OPERATING SYSTEM :<3:
Kernel or more common definition , the operating system , is the one program that running at all the time on the computer where all else being application program.
The shell (sometimes called the control-card , interpreter, or the command-line interpreter) is a program that reads and interprets control statement is executed automatically.
The function of a shell is quite simple : get the next command statement and execute it.
:tada: File System
The operating system imposes a file system to allow the data to be stored , located and retrieved easily. In other word , file system developed to provide an efficient and convenient access to disk.
PRODUCT OF OS :<3:
Closed Source Operating System.
:fountain_pen: Closed source programs are owned by someone and distributed through a variety of retail channels including the owner website.
:fountain_pen: There may be a limited period of time after which the software will disable itself.
:explode: EXAMPLE = Windows - For personal computers or server.
Mac OS , iOS - For Macs and iPhone and iPad.
Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2004.
Open Source Operating System.
:fountain_pen: Computer system with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study , change and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
:fountain_pen: The software and source code are available without cost or obligation.
:explode: EXAMPLE = Linux - For personal computers or server.
Unix - For Macs iPhone and iPad.
Syambian,Android - For mobile phones.
:tada: Definition of OS
:red_flag: A program that manages the computer hardware . Also provide a basic for application program and acts as intermediary between computer hardware.
NURINA SAHIDA BINTI MOHD RAFI (21DDT17F1151)
NAZATULLIZA BINTI NARI (21DDT17F1007)