Nation States in a Globalised World :world_map: (Nationalism, Colonialism…
Nation States in a Globalised World :world_map:
Nationalism, Colonialism + the Modern World
Shared feeling for special geographical area - expressed by political identification + a sense of belonging to a particular nation.
The British Tune -- European visitors to Britain in 18th century noticed the advantage of nationally recognised musical symbol
By 20th century, European nationalism exported worldwide but by 1945, national self-determination colonies began to threaten imperial powers.
European countries resisted decolonisation but human + financial cost of fighting two world wars removed capacity to maintain empires. (Local + international opposition).
USA wanted independence from UK + wanted to be hyperpower = collapse of British Empire = less competition. + USSR saw British Empire as a form of oppression of proletariat = not sympathetic to its collapse. Now could exert own superpower status.
During 19th cent. = romanticised nationalism in Europe --> linked to wealth from industrial revolution + colonialism
New countries with nat identity began to form e.g. Germany, Poland, Italy.
In 19th cent. EU countries built global empires -- competition between nations was ^ impt.
'Wind of change' Speech
Colonial Decline of British Empire
Uganda - 40 ethnic groups = English national language.
Place names + architecture
Kolkatta, India - Cathedral Road
India = highest recipient of aid from UK
£200 million to Ugandan Health Sector
Movement of capital + investment into off shore locations
Country/ independent area where taxes are levied at low rate
Jersey, Bermuda, Isle of Man, Caymen Islands
Why has glob caused growth in low-tax regimes?
Glob = encourages competition for profits. Free movement of capital + financial deregulation
Glob encourages flow of capital + FDI. GOVs have removed restrictions on foreign ownership = companies can relocate to countries with low tax regimes = ^ profit.
Why have most GOVs accepted emergence of tax havens?
Gained money from taxation of workers
Jobs for local people
Involvement in productivity + technology transfer
Why do NGO's oppose tax havens?
Only large TNCs can afford to set up administrative offices in tax havens =
Workers pay taxes but the companies don't!
Money not contributed to local economy.
Undermines development + poverty reduction + less investment in country
Views on Tax Avoidance
Useful. ^ Protits
Critical Organisations + Networks
Tax Justice Network
Generates inequality: allows wealthier countries to become wealthier; development halted in host countries
Growing Global Inequality
Gini Coefficient + Lorenz Curve
x + y value cumulative --> added together
Capitalism = inequality
Global shares of wealth
Richest 20% = 83% global wealth.
Bottom two quintiles (poorest 40%) = 3% total wealth ($2.34 trillion)
Tax havens fuel extreme inequality
States and the processes that shape them
Political entity that has sovereignty over its territory
Right to make laws + regulations without other nations interfering
Nation States vary in ethnic, cultural + linguistic unity
group of people who may lack
e.g. Welsh nation of UK
Cultural traits distinguish + define different identities include languages/ dialect, support of nat. sport teams, music + literature.
^ complex. UK is multi-faith = Asian British, Black British identities = ^ complexity of cultural mix.
Nation States + Cultures
Establishing national borders
Ethnic conflict + Contested borders in Central Africa
1885 meeting to discuss division of Africa, 14 countries met in Berlin
DRC, Rwanda + Burundi + Uganda home to 240 ethnic groups
Cultural diversity = major conflicts
Conflicts attributed to the imposed boundaries established by GB, Belgium + Germany
Traditional regions = fragmented. People became transnational = long-term political instability
80% of Africa was under indigenous control
By end, Africa was divided into 50 countries via geometric boundaries - not cultural. 50 separate countries.
Boundaries imposed regardless of cultural or language issues
Straight lines on map
Egypt + Libya
Tutsis received preferential treatment
Hutu president murdered in a plane crash (shot down RPF) during peace negotiation between Hutu + Tutsi.
Hutus were marginalised + oppressed by Belgians via identity cards
: Tutsi aristocracy + Hutu slaves = class system.
: Germany takes Rwanda; Hutus + Tutsis separated by appearance -- Tutsis placed in powerful positions. Hutus - lower class
1962 Belgians leave
Hutu gov in charge
, massacres + university exclusions
1979 Coffee prices collapse
1990-1994 Localised killings
: President H shot down during peace negotiation by RPF to spark conflict.
100 days. 800,000 dead
. Guns too expensive. Machetes = cheaper. Option for Tutsis to buy own bullet. RTLM radio station used to spread propaganda. "tall trees"
Contested borders - Ukraine + Russia
Sits on huge reserves of oil + gas. Eastern Ukraine. 55% of Crimea = Russian speaking. Military invasion of Crimea by Russian soldiers. Triggered referendum. 90% of Crimea voted to be part of Russia -- to leave Ukraine. Putin announced that Crimea was part of Russia. Russia already had a naval base in Crimea. mid April - mid July = 1000 dead
1991 -- break up of USSR. Pro Russian President turned back on EU + signed deal with Putin. Removed from office + pro-western official put into place. Rejected Russian deal previously agreed. Eastern = pro Russian. Western = pro EU. Nov 2013.
Prior to "shrinking world" era, natural barriers to pop movement = mountain ranges + rivers.
Long-settled ethnic groups = strong assoc. to land.
European geopolitical map corresponds to cultural + linguistic map.
Cultural Unity in Iceland VS Singapore
Physically Isolated = cultural homogeneity
Community cohesion formed via hardship - volcanic island
Shared: consumption of rotten Greenland shark (poisonous if not buried for months to allow fluid to drain). Trad festival food.
2008: McDonalds left -- prices too high = no customers
Pop 320,000, AVG 30,000 visitors per day, many settle = ^ div
Melting pot: Malay, Chinese, India, European. "Singlish".
1926-1946 strat. hub for British. Dec. to make it a free port = ^ migration from China, India, Indonesia, Malay Peninsula + Middle East. = Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism + Taoism.
Independence: now = Asian tiger, GDP per capita of $82,000 (3rd highest). = magnet for migrants who bring customs, religions + festivals.
Contested borders + states
Ethnic conflict + contested borders in Iraq + Syria
Non-recognition of Taiwan
24million pop. 53rd ^ pop in world. 22nd largest economy of world. ^ ranking in freedom of press + human development. ^ skilled workforce. Most have tertiary education degree. Only rec. by 20 UN countries. USA recognised Taiwan as nation until 1978 -- open door policy -- where USA switched allegiance to China. USA + China paired up to fight Soviet Union
UK = sovereign state.
Scotland + Wales + Ireland = nations
X full autonomy e.g. Scotland can control GOV, edu + welfare but X declare war on another state = X have full sovereignty.
Diff cultural traits -- lang, dialect, supp. sport teams, music + literature.
Multi-faith soc from centuries o' migration.
Initially: mix of indigenous "first nations" tribes e.g. Sioux, Cheyenne Navajo. Today: 320mill pop. Descendants from Italy, Greece, Scandinavia, India, Pakistan + more. = American culture has formed from "melting pot"
USA culture inclusive (new arrivals participate) + dynamic (changed by new arrivals).
Nationalism, Colonialism + Modern World
Reasons for fall of British Empire
Post-colonial patterns of migration
Migration patterns bet. former colonies + imperial core countries still evident via ethnic compositions + cultural heterogeneity of countries.
1950-1980 = UK received migrants from former colonies e.g. Jamaica, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Kenya, Nigeria + Uganda.
Movements ^ cultural + ethnic diversity in urban centres (London, Birmingham, Liverpool + Manchester). Resulted in multi-lingual multi-faith community (cultural heterogeneity.
Migrants spill skills gaps in labour force after WW2. Mig. recruited directly.
Gaps in skilled labour market. e.g. NHS shortage of workers = doctors from India. Medical schools under colonial rule used same textbooks as British.
Notting Hill, Caribbean migration
Decolonisation left a "
" + troubled transition --> independence. Economic instability + development stall.
India + Pakisatan
Speed at which empires disbanded
time taken to build the empires.
2 WWs = ^ Cost (bankrupt)
^ Resistance to foreign rule (Gandhi campaigned for independence in 1947)
Young EU citizens saw colonial rule as unjust -> Protests + demonstrations
Rapid pop growth^ in developing = difficult to subjugate
EU economic shift away from industrial to post industrial = less dependent on raw materials from colonies
1880: UK = dominion over
1/3 of world's land
1/4 world's people
African countries regained
1945 + 1970
. Most recent:
South Africa, 1994.
Nineteenth-century nationalism + empire building
1500 - 1900 EU powers built global empires
Spain + Portugal
- South America
GB, France, Belgium + Holland
- Asia and Africa.
End of empire + new nation states
Post-colonial conflict in Sudan + South Sudan
Post-colonial patterns of migration
1950's - 1970's - UK received ^ migrants from former colonies e.g. Jamaica, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh + Uganda.
1948 Windrush - 566,000 Jamaicans to London to fill post-war lab shortages. Some recruited directly to become bus drivers for LUnderground
2018 Windrush Scandal - Deportation targets. Evidence of
1960's - 750,000 Pakistani and 1 million Indians from impoverished rural areas.
1960's - 280,000 Bangladeshi men - later families
UK accepted 20,000 Vietnamese refugees
30,000 Asians given asylum after being forced out of Uganda.
State Strategies in Response to Economic Globalisation
Alternative Economic Models for Nation-State Building
Alternative development in Latin America
free market capitalism
-- socialism instead
Markets mediate between producers + consumers
Consumers sell own labour in exchange for income
Private ownership - land, resources + capital
"resist the free-market neoliberal order!"
Largest proven fossil reserves in OPEC = ^ GOV spending on education, health, employment + small business support.
Rejected IMF + WB aid
Chavez took control of oil products prev. owned by Chevron, BP + ExxonMobil
Free oil supplies to Cuba for years
South Americas, African and Asian nations CRIT USA + UK
States gain disproportionately from global trade + use pow to reproduce this to own adv.
= same wealth as
2008 Financial crisis
= questions of
(IMF, WB) to successfully shape global markets
Leading developed nations fail to prioritise
global climate change
- economic growth lacks
Unequal access to education reinforces social inequality + decreases social mobility
Non-communicable diseases: Poor health - coronary heart disease + cancer from increased meat consumption + fast food and more sedentary lifestyles + pollution
Lack of social cohesion ^ tensions
LE North Korea = 10yrs lower than South Korea
Low-tax states + TNCs
Attract TNCs = financial gain
Low gov taxes generate huge revenue due to high volume of capital flows
Apple, California $6billion to US GOV 2012
TNCs leave trad countries if other states have lower tax rates:
Practical reasons why TNCs choose
is used to reduce tax burden.
Wealthy expatriates migrate
e.g. Bermuda, the Cayman Islands + Guernsey
Global governance + Tax Havens
GOV + TNCs work together closely to ^ one another's interests
Richard Nixon international lawyer for PepsiCo before becoming President. 1969. Soviet Union granted permission for PepsiCo to manufacture there in 1972. PepsiCo $2bill taxes to US Gov 2014.
Funding from TNCs = ^ health, edu, defence + welfare spending .
(tax avoidance) = economic damage to states.
Actions against TNC tax avoidance
OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) - 34 members, monitored offshore tax havens ($7trillion TNC tax evasion).
G20 2015 - 60 GOVs agreed to crack down on transfer pricing
Paradise Papers 2017
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Impact of IGOs:
TNCs more aware of risk to brand (boycotts) if associated with tax avoidance
Citizen-led protest movements
High-street demonstrations to pressure GOV to clamp down on tax avoidance
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President Hab agreed to form joint GOV - Hutu + Tutsi :small_airplane::explode::bomb:
85% Hutu 15% Tutsi
RTLM Radio Station
Scramble for Africa
Bermuda = 0% tax
How has globalisation contributed to formation of nation states?
Gibraltar, Isle of Man + Jersey = ruled by UK
Key question: What role has colonialism played in producing contested borders and ethnic conflict?
Neo-liberalism = deregulation?
Champaign glass effect :wine_glass:
Out-migration of young people
: place and its people can self-gov without outside interference
wind of change speech: first ack. that empire had collapsed (Macmillan)
Colonialism = conflict
Borders rarely reflect distribution of cultural + ethnic groups.
Contested borders Africa
Physical borders -- physical geography + historical development + colonial history/ rule = Problems of sovereignty + legitimacy = tensions
Glob = growth of low-tax regimes = profits for TNCs. NGO's see it as rich = richer, poor = poorer. Most GOVs accept tax havens.