Factors which affect the shape of the coastline
Beach/cliff erosion :beach_with_umbrella:
Weather conditions :thunder_cloud_and_rain:
Type of sediment on the beach
Human activity (tourism, :camera_with_flash: leisure, :sun_with_face: ports, :boat: residential, :house: renewable energy :zap:)
Climate change :thermometer:
Natural disasters - tsunamis :
River features :rowboat:
Prevailing wind direction :wind_blowing_face:
Relief of land
Waves are the movement of energy through water.
Created by the
of energy from the
. As wind blows across the
of the sea,
causes the water to begin to
. As waves form, the surface becomes
and it is easier for the wind to
the roughened water surface and
– local winds / travel short distances
– distant storms / long distances
Factors affecting size and formation
Time the wind has blown for
- the distance over which the wind has blown
Gradient of the beach and shelf area
System inputs and outputs
Tides, currents, constructive and destructive waves
Cliffs, sand dunes
Tourism, recreation, buildings, ports
Freeze thaw, biological, chemical
Landslide, mudflow, rockfall
Abrasions, hydraulic action, attrition, solution
LSD, waves, swash & backwash
Setting out of material, storms
Erosional & despositional landforms
Caves, arches, stumps, stacks, cliffs, beaches, sand bars -> spits/tombolo, sand dunes, bays - headlands, islands, berms, ridges/runnels/ripples, wave cut platforms, wave cut notches, deltas
Deep water wave
Deep water is when the water is deeper than ¼ of the wave depth.
Circular orbits are created by the drag of the wind moving over the surface of the sea.
The size of the orbit rapidly decreases with depth until it no longer exists.
Objects below the orbits will be unaffected by the waves.
Shallow water wave
Orbit is more elliptical due to friction with the sea bed causing the wave to slow.
Plunge line is the point where the wave breaks.
Wave length with decrease.
Wave height and steepness increase