Created his 4stages for Cognitive Development.
Developed the Theory of Constructivism
Belived that through interaction, play and cooperation is how children learn and grow.
Interned for Carl Jung after earning his PhD
Was a precocious child and attended high school by age 11. after publishing papers on mullusks he was regarded as an expert in the field by age 15.
After graduating High school she moved to Ohio and expereiced cultured shock. While teaching high school social studies is where she developed her research and studies.
Her theory is around culturally responsive teaching. She believed that in order for stundents from diverse backgrounds to overcome desparities that might affect education. Teachers need to: relate curriculum to students lives.
Teachers need to create a cohesive community between students from diverse backgrounds and the teacher to teach students that we can, as a community, work together productively despite any difference in our backgrounds culturally.
Gay believes that individuals, especially those who come from culturally diverse backgrounds, learn better when the content relates to their lives.
The role of the teacher is to help students bridge the gaps that they have due to cultural differences, that their maximum potential can be achieved, despite their differences.
Founder of Progressivism: Focuses on Children as the cetral component of education
Against Authoritative teaching styles; intead he championed Democracy. Kids had input in what they wanted to learn
Viewed school as communuty for children. One which focused on cooperation, and thus prepared them for life within society
Utilized the Project Approach to learning: Where learning should be focused on problem solving
Relevant today due to his focus on the child first and learning by doing method of education
Known for his 12 Brain Rules: Survival, Exercise, Sleep, Stress, Wiring, Attention, Memory, Sensory Integration, Vision, Music, Gender, and Exploration
He centered his work on understanding how babies understand information
He states that some stress is good for us, but too much stress is very harmful
He states that as our brains develop, our ability to learn is impacted by the relationships we foster
Helped designed "Zoomanzium" at Woodland Park Zoo.
3 Stages of Representation: Enactive, Iconic, Symbolic Representation
Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge
Brune's Constructivism Thoery: Based on cognition, liked to child development, organized curriculum in a spiral-manner so student continually builds upon what is already learned
Cognitive Structure provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given"
The essence of creativity is figuring out how to use what you already know in order to go beyond what you already think you know
She doesn't have a concrete theory like Piaget, or Vygotsky or Dewey. However she does state numerous times to "trust teachers, not test"
Fervant opponent of choice schools like Charter schools.
Believes too much testing is harming kids.
Served as assistant to the secretary of education from 1991-1993
Has written dozens of books about how to improve education in the country
People can be smart in different ways this should influence how we think of ourselves and how interact with others.
GRIT a lone is not enough; we must ponder the applications of grit and work unceasingly to ensure that they are used in positive way.
In order for someone to be "smart" they need to have GRIT+WIT
Started out believing that intelligence was like a single computer with a single program.
All humans beings have these intelligences; thats what makes us human, cognitively speaking.
He expanded on Thorndike "law and effect" theory with experiments and proved the theory true.
One of his most famous experiments was the "skinner box" where he used a mouse and reinforced good or bad behavrior.
He used mice for his experiments a lot.
He trained the rats to display favorable behavior or unfavorable behavior.
Postive and negative behavior does not always equate to good and bad. it was more ot decrease or oncrease one over the other.
She earned all of her degrees from the same university. The university of Miami.
She wants to fix the prolems in elementary school classrooms. Trying to teach students early on how to correct unfavorable behavior and is very supportive of special learners, ELL studetns and students with disabilities.
RInaldi believes it starts with the teacher.
Teacher needs to be proactive in helping students "when studens dont learn the way we teach, teach the way they learn"
Renaldi classifies the students in to a pyramid, where the top tier are the high achiviers and it goes down from there. She focuses her work on the bottom third tier.
He believed that work of psychologist, sociologist, anthropologist, economist, and political scientist should not be seperate.
He believed that environment plays a very significant role in someones development.
Created a Bio-ecological theory system with 4 stages but then added a 5th one. 1) MIcro system 2) Meso system 3)Exso system 4) Macro system and 5) Krono System.
He believed that the generational difference from how grandparents were raise to how even parents were raised and to how kids today are being raised is completely different. The emmergence of technology has changed everything.
His theory in the classroom says that it needs to be a partnership between everybody involved in the childs life.
Pioneer worker in the study of human motivation.
While doing her research Dweck noticed that some students rebounded well while others appeared to be devastated.
Coined the terms: "Fixed mindset" and "Growth mindset"
Dweck blieved that if a student believes their brain can grow, they will behave differntly.
Teachers haver more say when it comes to creating a growth mindset vs a fixed mindset. They can encourage (grow) or teach down (fixed)
During a doctors visit for her daughter erika, the idea for her theory frist came to light in her mind.
Her philosophy is very child-oriented, it focuses on different types of quality time you can spend with the child: 1) Nothing time and 2) Known as something time.
The ultimate goal is to create the authentic child which is one who is confident to explore, feels competent to complete tasks, feels respected and safe.
During the times where the child is more vulnerable is when the adult can show then safety and trustworthiness.
Gerber states that even as infants a child should be treated as a human being and nothing less.
He believed that those in poverty will never get an equal education because of their oppressed nature.
He felt the great need to educate adults because at the time only educated adults were allowed to cast political votes.
During a time while he was in jail Freire wrote his book "the petegogy of the oppressed."
Freire and his writings on social justice have created higher learning institutes in over 11 countries world wide.
The process of liberating the oppressed is a mutual act between the oppressed and the oppressed. The teacher is a mutual relatioship and one person is not above the other.
He created a thoery of education that consist of 8 components. 1) The thoery of value, 2) the theory of knowledge, 3) the theory of human nature, 4) the theory of learning, 5) the theory of transmution, 6) the theory of society, 7) the thoery of opportunity, 8) the thoery of cencensus.
Believes children learn best in socially intergrated enviroments.
Spends his time with future teachers to teach them about child psychology.
He began in the Boston public school system.
He then became interested in civil rights and its effects on children.
1st black student to receive his PhD from Harvard University.
Growing up he was born a free man, he was never a slave. He also attended a predomantly white school, for their time. They were very proggressive and DuBois never encountered racism as they would in the south.
In 1903 he published "the souls of black folks" he talks about "the veil" and "the double conscience"
He believed that racism affects identity and felt the society had created many inequalities.
Encourages us today to always be vigilant to classroom and education inequalities.
At 13 she attended an all-male technical school where she became and engineer.
While in practice in psychiatry, she became interested in education and how it related to children with special needs.
Opened the "casa de bambini." Then developed her theory and her philosophy that the classroom enviroment revolves around the students desire to learn.
Presently there are 122 Montessori schools in over 100 countries.
Believed that children have a natural ability to learn and they are capable if initiating their own learning.
Developed the Zone of Proximal Development
Developed the Scaffolding teaching method and included both teachers and parents.
He believed that with observation an individual would be able to learn and repeat the observation
He was credited with starting the Special Education services program in Russia
Piaget's theory got Kohlberg started to think about morality and his work inspired him to learn more about it.
Kohlberg started interviewing boys and asked different morality based questions and found that in different ages thre was a different level of morality.
He found the morality can go positive or negative depending on the development that happens during the progressive stages.
Progressive stages: 1) Children primarly obey rules. 2) Children obey because they want to be rewarded. 3) the conventional stage: children wnat to be thought of as good. 4) they obey because they respect the person telling what to do. 5) they obey of the rules make sense to their values. 6) rarely reached: the rules and stanrds are followed for ethical reasons.