Assistive Technologies for Intervention (Deaf-Blindness (Christine)…
Assistive Technologies for Intervention
"In the 2003-2004 school year, 1,667 students were served under the category of multiple disabilities in the United States, representing 0.03% of all special education students."
Screen enlargement software - for students who have limited sight
Screen Reader - For students who have limited hearing
American Sign Language
Lip Reading Speech
Pidgin Signed Speech
Tadoma Method of Speech Reading "In the Tadoma method, direct contact is made between the hand of the deaf-blind receiver and the face of a talker to monitor the various articulartory actions that occur during speech"
Braille - translation software, printer, auto refresh device
"Individuals who are deafblind will often need touch in order for them to be sure that their partner shares their focus of attention"
"Exploring objects should be done in a "nondirective" way, allowing the individual who is deafblind to have control"
"The individual may have very slow response times. Therefore, the teacher should allow time for the student to respond."
"Many of the teaching strategies for individuals with visual impairments and hearing impairments can be used with individuals who are deafblind with modifications made for the communications needs of the individual."
Deaf-Blindness. (2013). Retrieved October 05, 2017, from
Reed, Charlotte M. The Implication of the Tadoma Method of Speechreading for Spoken Language Processing. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 5, October 2017:
Gallagher, James. (2002). A-Z to Deafblindness. James Gallagher. Retrieved 5, October 2017:
Developmental Delay (Janelle)
-Visual representation devices; dry erase boards, picture cards to facilitate communication, overhead projectors, adaptive hardware for computers
-Give lots of praise -Make changes to classroom environment -Create opportunity for social interaction -Create behavioural management system
Banks, K. L. (2012, August 02). Finding Assistive Technology Devices and Services for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities and Developmental Disorders. Retrieved October 03, 2017, from
"The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance:
C. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
D. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
B. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
E. A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems."
A. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
"Approximately 6 to 8 million (about 12%) of all children and youth in the United States have an emotional, behavioral or mental disorder in need of treatment. Of these, about half have problems that are severe and persistent."
"An estimated 71% of students with emotional disorders also have expressive and receptive language disorders that impact their ability to understand and communicate with peers and adults."
Mid-Tech AT Devices
An ipod with ambient or classical music can help students become calm and focused while they work.
The Talklight is a classroom light fixture that alerts the class when the noise volume is too loud. This helps students know when to become quiet through the visual flashing light.
"This little device is similar to a pager and can be set to buzz or beep at certain intervals reminding students to stay on whatever task they are trying to accomplish. This can be really helpful for students who have difficulty paying attention or are easily distracted. The idea is to pair one specific goal the student is working on with the buzzing of the Motivaider. When used effectively, it can promote independence because the student would not need continuous prompts from a teacher."
High-Tech AT Device
"These math games feature arcade style play and increase high school math skills. These games can be a good way for your students to practice their skills or provide a constructive activity when they need to be away from the group because of stress or frustration."
"Brainpop is a site that contains simple videos and activities that you can use to supplement your curriculum. The videos can make difficult ideas easier to understand. This website is designed to capture student interest by making the lessons fun and interactive. A variety of subjects are available and many of the lessons are free."
"One of the best ways to promote positive behaviour with students is to provide tangible rewards. Although video games do not seem to provide educational value at first they can be a great tool for students with behaviour issues. The use of a Nintendo Switch as a reward for earning the week's points can be a great motivator. The System also improves the students’ social skills because it requires the ability to take turns and the use of good sportsmanship. The best part of this system is that it is wireless and requires the user to move to control the games. Students with lots of energy will enjoy this aspect of game play."
Low-Tech AT Devices
Used to help motivate students by tracking positive behavior
A tool to help students visualize their goals and dreams so they can keep track and focused on achieving them.
Allows students to track their own behavioral changes
Watching movies or t.v.
Since a high volume of emotionally disturbed children have a difficult time communicating, the more positive social encounters with friends and family prove to be beneficial to the child's well-being
Sports and teams
Finding a community where the child feels welcomed
Sculpture/ Tactile Arts
Theatre and film
(n.d.). Retrieved October 05, 2017, from
ATSTAR. (n.d.). Retrieved October 05, 2017, from
Emotional Disturbance. (n.d.). Retrieved October 05, 2017, from
Emotional Disturbance. (n.d.). Retrieved October 06, 2017, from
Hearing Impairment (Janelle)
-Personal hearing device
Assistive Devices for People with Hearing, Voice, Speech, or Language Disorders. (2017, September 06). Retrieved October 03, 2017, from
-Making changes to classroom environment depending on student I.E. -Allow scheduled breaks -Predictable schedules
Even if the student has a mixture of "low incidence" disabilities, the likelihood is that one of them is bound to reveal themselves at some Point in most lessons, therefore this state is considered "high incidence"
Multiple disabilities should be treated as "high incidence" because it can be a combination of presumably a mix of high and low incident disabilities.
It really depends on which disabilities are present in the student, so there is a possibility of needing anything from a speech synthesiser, a talking calculator, spell check programs to audiobooks or even voice recognition softwares.
From class to class this student would need different assisstive technologies, and the school would need to understand the student's needs and tailor it to every class.
Making lessons easier to understand and break them down into pallatable blocks
Working with parents and the student's medical team
Providing constructive, regular feedback
Patience in and out of class, especially with assignments
Regular meetings with the student to check on progress.
Turnbull, H., Huerta, N., & Stowe, M. (2004). The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as Amended in 2004. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
U.S. Department of Education. (2010). Thirty-five Years of Progress in Educating Children With Disabilities Through IDEA. Retrieved from
Turnbull, H. (2005). Individuals with disabilities education act reauthorization: Accountability and personal responsibility. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 320-326.
Yell, M., Rogers, D., & Rogers, E. (1998). The legal history of special education: What a long strange trip it's been. Remedial and Special Education, 19, 219-228.
Other Health Impairment (AJ)
Allow extra time for students to shift from one activity or environment to the next.
Teach students specific techniques for organizing their thoughts and materials. Organize the classroom accordingly, and keep all materials in permanent locations for easy access.
Allow extra time for finishing assignments or for testing.
For more complex activities, simplify steps to make them more manageable
Seat the student close to the teacher and away from any peers that might be distracting.
Post a daily and weekly schedule that clearly delineates each activity.
Keep these schedules as consistent as possible, and keep unstructured time at a minimum
Personal digital assistants, dictating machines, and a variety of computer programs
For most students in the other health impairment category, it is the needs of the individual that drive the designation of appropriate assistive technology.
Examples include tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, asthma, ADD, ADHD, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, and Tourette syndrome.
Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness to the educational environment that is due to chronic or acute health problems and adversely affects the child's educational performance.
Other health impairment exists as an umbrella term encompassing hundreds of types of impairments that may result in a chronic condition limiting the individual's ability to effectively access the educational environment.
Specific Learning Disability (AJ)
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.
Auditory Processing Disorder
- How sound is processed and interpreted
- Affects a persons abliity to understand numbers and learn math facts
- Affects a persons handwriting ability and fine motor skills
- Affects reading and related language based processing skills
Language Processing Disorder
- A specific type of (APD) that affects attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories
Non-Verbal Learning Disability
- Has trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language and may have poor coordination
Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit
- affects the understanding of information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy.
have special overlays that customize the appearance and function of a standard keyboard. Students who have LD or have trouble typing may benefit from customization that reduces input choices, groups keys by color/location, and adds graphics to aid comprehension.
Audio books and publications
Recorded books allow users to listen to text and are available in a variety of formats. Special playback units allow users to and search and bookmark pages and chapters.
Electronic math work sheets
Software programs that can help a user organize, align, and work through math problems on a computer screen. Numbers that appear onscreen can also be read aloud via a speech synthesizer. This may be helpful to people who have trouble aligning math problems with pencil and paper.
Graphic organizers and outlining
Programs help users who have trouble organizing and outlining information as they begin a writing project. This type of program lets a user "dump" information in an unstructured manner and later helps him organize the information into appropriate categories and order.
Helps a person plan, organize, store, and retrieve his calendar, task list, contact data, and other information in electronic form. Personal data managers may be portable, hand-held devices, computer software, or a combination of those tools working together by "sharing" data.
Speech synthesizers/screen readers
Can display and read aloud text on a computer screen, including text that has been typed by the user, scanned in from printed pages (e.g., books, letters), or text appearing on the Internet.
Has a built-in speech synthesizer that reads aloud each number, symbol, or operation key a user presses; it also vocalizes the answer to the problem. This auditory feedback may help him check the accuracy of the keys he presses and verify the answer before he transfers it to paper.
Kristen Stanbary and Marshall H. Raskind (2009) Assistive Technology for Kids with Learning Disabilities: An Overview. Retrieved from
Provide prompts of strategies to use
Engage students in process type questions like “How is the strategy working? Where else might you apply it?
Supply regular, quality feedback
Provide ample independent, well-designed intensive practice
Break Learning into small steps
Use diagrams, graphics and pictures to augment what is said in words
Model instructional practices for students to follow
Speech or Language Impairment (Alicia)
[Second most prevalent disability in 2013 for students ages 6-21 served under IDEA, Part B] (
A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance
Augmentative or alternative communication (AAC)
The general education teacher should work with the speech-language pathologist to reinforce strategies mastered in speech therapy.
helping with speech and language exercises
providing the student with immediate feedback when the speech-language pathologist is not present
Traumatic Brain Injury
Sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is, "an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects the student's educational performance."
Brain injuries that are degenerative, congenital, or caused by birth trauma are not classified as traumatic brain injuries.
Loss of intellectual capacities
Partial to full paralysis
Reduced body strength
Decreased motor coordination
Problem solving ability
Difficulty with abstract concepts
Slowed information processing
Loss of reduction of inhibitions
Difficulty accepting and responding to change
Denial of deficits
Feelings of worthlessness
Lack of emotion
Low frustration level
Inappropriate crying or laughing
Social skills development
Inappropriate responses to the environment
Limited initiation on social interactions
Inability to restrict socially inappropriate behaviors
Difficulties maintaining relationships
Insensitivity to others' feelings
"About 180 per 100,000 children under age 15 experience TBIs and of that number, 5% to 8% experience severe TBIs."
Devices for Memory and Organization
Smartphones / Tablets
Livescribe Echo SmartPen
Devices to Access Information
Screen reading software
Tinted overlays for reading
Speech recognition software
Academic software for students with disabilities
Devices for Positioning and Mobility
Specialized chairs, desks and tables
Keep the classroom environment as distraction-free as possible
Compensatory strategies for increasing memory
Attention training exercises
One-step instructions until the student becomes proficient
Provide rest breaks for learning fatigue
Brain Injury and Assistive Technology: 10 Devices for Memory Loss. (2016, June 26). Retrieved October 05, 2017, from
Assistive Technology for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury. (2017, May 27). Retrieved October 05, 2017, from
Traumatic Brain Injury. (n.d.). Retrieved October 05, 2017, from
Visual Impairment (including Blindness)(Yuan)
Low-Tech, Low-Cost Accommodation
Use large print
Provide magnification devices
Use electronic text and voice mail
Assign human readers
Adjust work schedule to allow for mass transit rather than car use
Provide for sharing or switching certain job tasks
Synthetic speech output to translate text to speech
Devices to enlarge printed documents
Refreshable braille systems
electronic book players
personal digital assistants
Optical character recognition systems
Approximately 14 million Americans aged 12 years and older have self-reported visual impairment defined as distance visual acuity of 20/50 or worse.
3.4 million (3%) Americans aged 40 years and older are either blind or visually impaired.
Only half of the estimated 61 million adults in the United States classified as being at high risk for serious vision loss, visited an eye doctor in the past 12 month
Intellectual Disability (Daniel)
IncidenceIncidence varries, but generally between 15-20 people per 1000 live births in most countries 18.3 per 1000 in a recent Australian meta analysis Source:
Assistive Technology:Intel Reader-Talking Spellchecker-Picture Dictionary -Multiple TTS Voices-Language Support-
-provide audio versions of textbooks -provide extra outlines-provide pre written notes-functional activities -repetition of concepts
ASD is reported to occur in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups.
About 1 in 68 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
ASD is about 4.5 times more common among boys (1 in 42) than among girls (1 in 189).
Various visual systems
True Object Based Icons (TOBIs)
Visual Communication Systems
Behavior Charts/Reward Systems
Help with Class Notes
Orthopedic Impairment (Alicia)
Includes impairments caused by congenital anomalies such as absence of a member, clubfoot, impairments caused by disease such as bone tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, or impairments for other causes to include amputations, fractures, cerebral palsy, burns, or fractures.
Weiss, T. C. (2017, June 03). Children and Orthopedic Impairments. Retrieved October 06, 2017, from
Seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements
Ensuring suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices
Instruction that is focused on development of gross and fine motor skills
Adequate awareness of the student's medical condition and its affect on the student
Speech recognition software
Screen reading software
Augmentative and alternative communication devices
Academic software packages for students with disabilities