Topic 6: Training ( The role of training in continuous learning and…
Special training issues.
The role of training in continuous learning and competitive advantage
Formal training refers to the courses, programs or training events that are developed and organised by the company.
Informal learning is learner initiated. This form of learning is motivated by the intent for personal development.
Formal training and informal learning both contribute to the development of human capital in particular. Human capital includes:
knowledge (know what)
advanced skills (know how)
system understanding and creativity (know why)
motivation to deliver high-quality products and services (care why).
Where the linkage between continuous learning and business strategy and performance is clear, senior managers will be more inclined to ensure training resources are made available to training departments, because management can see that the training offered will lead to the achievement of organisational strategic goals.
Creating a learning environment and ensuring transfer of learning
Climate for transfer—the trainee’s perceptions about the characteristics of the work environment:
Manager support—understanding, support and reinforcement of learning by the manager/supervisor
Peer support—co-worker help or support through a community of practice
Opportunity to use learned capabilities—without practice, capabilities will decline over
Technological support—through resource/expert systems, computerised feedback /monitoring, simulations
Self-management skills of trainees—these should be consciously developed by the trainers so that trainees know what difficulties they will encounter, learn strategies for transfer of learning and develop personal motivation techniques.
Communities of practice have emerged as a form of peer-initiated learning. People who have a common job or work interest meet on a regular basis to exchange ideas, issues, resources and solutions.
Modeling is an effective training technique because employees often learn from observing and interacting with others who are able to demonstrate the competences that they are trying to acquire.
conditions for an employee to learn include:
knowing why they should learn (and what they are learning)
meaningful training content (trainers need to ensure learners understand the
relevance of the content)
having opportunities to practise the newly learned capability
feedback about whether or not they are meeting the training objectives
good coordination and administration of the training program.
Selecting training and evaluation methods
Presentation methods include classroom instruction, distance learning, and audio-visual techniques (including PowerPoint slides and videos).
Distance learning includes audio-conferencing, video-conferencing and docu-conferencing.
Hands-on methods include on-the-job training (structured and semi-structured), self- directed learning, apprenticeships, simulations (including virtual reality), business games and case studies, behaviour modelling, interactive video, and e-learning.
E-Learning: Noe et al. (2017, pp. 289–291) identify three important characteristics of e-learning:
Involves electronic networks that enable information and instruction to be delivered, shared, and updated instantly.
Delivers to the trainee via computers with Internet technology.
Focuses on learning solutions that go beyond traditional training to include
information and tools that improve performance.
Evaluating training programs
Return on investment (ROI).
Group-building methods include adventure learning, team training (cross-training, team- building and coordination training) and action learning.
Action learning is an approach to learning that takes the task or project as the vehicle for learning.
Training needs assessment and ensuring employees’ readiness for training
six-step process for effective training.
The steps are:
Ensuring employees’ readiness for training
Creating a learning environment
Ensuring transfer of training
Selecting training methods
Evaluating training programs.
needs analysis can be conducted at three levels:
Organisational analysis: assessing appropriateness of training (given the business strategy), and the resources and support available for training
Person analysis: assessing employees’ need and readiness for training
Task analysis: determining the knowledge, skills and behaviours demanded of the
tasks/roles for which training is being conducted.