Psychological Development (KOHLBERG (Preconventional Morality: (ages B-9)…
: (ages B-9) Kids obey parents either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete awards.
Post Conventional Morality:
People agreed upon rights or follows what are personally perceives as basic ethical principles.
: (Early Adolesence) Starts to care for others & upholds laws and social rules simply because they are laws and rules.
Believed our lives are shaped in 8 stages of development
: Birth-age 1 Trust vs. Mistrust
+: Have a sense that the world will be okay.
-:later will questions the world in which they live.
Develop trust with parents for food, warmth and affection.
Ages 1-3 Autonomy vs. Shame
+: Child develops control over body (is able to say no)
-: Doubt abilities thus have low self esteem.
Begin to walk, talk and use toilets.
Self-confidence and control develops.
Ages 3-6 Initiative vs Guilt
+: Learn that certain things are not allowed, but are encouraged to do things without being told.
-:frustrated over natural desires and goals (family relationships).
Learn about social interactions and learn how to control outburst.
Ages 6-12 Competence vs. inferiority
+: Discover pleasure in education and accomplishments.
-: Develop a low self-esteem when comparing with one's peers.
Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to new tasks.
Ages 12-18 Identity vs confusion
+: Answer question successfully are able to develop identity and make plans for future.
-: Sink into confusion and about who they are.
Ask the Question “Who am I”. Work on social interactions and morals development.
Ages 19-40 Intimacy vs Isolation
+: Are able to love.
-: Fear commitment and unable to depend on others.
At this stage we are all preoccupied with love.
Ages 40-65 Generativity vs. Stagnation
+: Helping next generation makes you feel great.
-:Feeling like nothing was done.
People look to help the next generation.
Ages 65-D Integrity vs Despair
+: Did good and ready to die.
-: Did bad and feel like it was a waste.
Look back at life and see how you did.
Believed as we grow up we create schemas
Sensorimotor B-2 Experience the world through senses and actions.
Object Permanence – The awareness objects continue to exist even if they cannot be seen.
Stranger Anxiety – Crying when in a stranger's arms.
Preoperational ages 2-6:
Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning.
Egocentric – trouble of a child taking another’s point of view.
Pretend Play – Ability to imagine (playing house) and or having friends that are not real
Concrete Operational 7-11 years:
Think logically about events, can perform mathematical operations.
Conservation – Properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in form or shape.
Formal Operational 12 and up:
Abstract thinking, moral development.
Many years we believed that we form attachments with mothers due to food.