Judaism origins go back to when God made a covenant with Abraham. It is believed to take place during the Bronze Age, in the Middle East.
Judaism is monotheistic, which means they only believe in one God. There are lots of important Jewish figures, that take place in the Torah, and in the Old Testament Bible in Christianity. Some are; Abraham, Moses, Solomon, Isaac, Jacob, and David, just to name a few. The Egyptian Empire played a very important part in Jewish history, because the Israelites escaped being enslaved for hundreds of years, and then Moses lead them out.
The most important book/religious text in Judaism is The Torah, which is Judaism’s version of a Bible. An important excerpt is: שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֶלֹקֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד
“Hear O Israel, G‑d is our L‑rd, G‑d is One.” [Deut. 6:4] At Bar Mitzvahs or Bat Mitzvahs, the person making their Bar/Bat Mitzvah reads an excerpt from the Torah in Hebrew, and it is an important rite of passage for them.