(2) Societal Perception
In all three of these texts, one part of the population is considered to be less than human based on certain traits that establish them as "other than" human.
In *Never Let Me Go, the students, or clones, are often treated as animals or cattle, beasts that are systematically slaughtered for their vital organs. Several "great breakthroughs in science" brought about the capability to breed clones (262). The world embraced this new method of "curing so many previously incurable conditions", without considering "how [they] were reared, [and] whether they should have been brought into existence at all" until it was "too late" (262-63). Since they were seen as man-made "creatures", people doubted that the clones even had souls. This is why Hailsham existed - Madame and the people at Hailsham had undertaken the task of "[proving they] had souls at all" (260).
In Kindred, slaves are seen as less than human in this context. There is a shared societal perception that African Americans are less human. A slave was considered as 3/5ths of a person in the US at this time. Slaves were also perceived and treated as property. During Dana's time in the antebellum South, we see slaves bought, sold, overworked, whipped, raped and subjugated to unimaginable horrors. However, this treatment of slaves is deemed permissible, since slaves were property, like cattle.
In Word for World is Forest, the Athsheans are seen as less than or more primitive than the human race because of their physical appearances and tribal communities. Captain Davidson often refers to the Athsheans as "cattle" and sees them as beings that