Unit 14: Social Psychology (Social Relations (Prejudice (unjustifiable…
Unit 14: Social Psychology
Attributing behavior to persons or situations
People usually attribute other’s behavior either to their internal dispositions or to their external situations
Fundamental attribution error
- overestimization of influence of personality and underestimization of situations
We often disregard situations and leap towards unwarranted conclusions about personality traits.
The effects of attribution
We must decide if people’s actions are genuine or not
Attributions should be made carefully or have consequences.
Attitudes and actions
Attitudes- feelings, often influenced by beliefs, predispose reactions.
Attitudes affect Actions
Central Route Persuasion
- attitudes change path in which interested people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Peripheral Route Persuasion
- attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues.
Actions Affect Attitudes
People will believe ideas they support
- people agree on small action and comply later on larger ones. “Start small and build”
Role-playing affects attitudes. Begins as feeling like acting but becomes who the person is. Based on Roles- set of expectations about social positions, explaining how positions should behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
We act to reduce discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent, and bring actions into line with attitudes.
Belief + inconsistent behavior + tension =
We control feelings by altering behaviors.
Conformity and Obedience
behavior is contagious, we feel happier around happy people, sadder around sad people, etc.
Group Pressure and Conformity
- adjustment of behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
reasons for conformity
normative social influence
- influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or approve disapproval.
informational social influence
- results from our willingness to accept other's opinions about reality.
- people follow commands from authority figures even if they do not agree with what they are requesting.
Individual Behavior in the presence of others
- stronger responses to simple/well known tasks in the presence of others///opposite
- people in a group exert less effort when pooling efforts towards a common goal than when individually accountable.
- loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations that foster anonymity.
Effects of Group Interaction
- enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion with a group, becoming more for something through discussion.
- mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in decision-making overrides a realistic decision.
- enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, traditions, shared by a group of people and transmitted through generations
- understood rules for accepted and expected behavior, describe "proper" behavior
- buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies, some like more than others, depends sometimes on cultures.
over time, cultures have changed very quickly
Power of Individuals- social influence is huge, but so are powers of committed individuals.
unjustifiable attitude against a group and its members. Involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predispositions.
Conflict and Peacemaking