The Fallacies and Ethical Argument (Fallacies in Logic (Begging The…
The Fallacies and Ethical Argument
Fallacies in Logic
Begging The Question: No support is provided by the arguer who is begging the question, and the claim is simply restated, over and over again, in one form or another
Red Herring: A
provides irrelevant and misleading support that pulls the audience away from the real argument.
is Latin for 'it does not follow.' in this type of fallacy, the conclusion does not follow from the evidence and the warrant.
Straw Man: A
involves attributing an argument to an opponent that the opponent never made the then refuting it in a devastating way.
Stacked Evidence: Using
to represent only one side of an issue that clearly has two sides gives a distorted impression of the issue.
Manufactured Evidence: Using fake or
to prove a claim will discredit an entire argument and ruin the reputation of the individual who makes it up.
Unreliable or Insufficient Evidence: Evidence should be verifiable, which means you should be able to look it up in another source and find the same information.
Exaggerated or Oversimplified Evidence
can occur when statistics are manipulated or changed so that they appear to support a claim when, actually, they do not.
Either-Or: Some arguments are oversimplified by the arguer and presented as black-or-white,
choices when there are other alternatives.
is short for
ergo propter hoc,
a Latin phrase that translates as "after this, therefore because of this." To put it more simply,
is the fallacy of faulty cause.
Hasty Generalization: Sometimes arguers "jump to conclusions" by basing a conclusion on too few examples; this is considered to be hasty generalization.
Fallacies That Affect Character or Ethos
means "to the man" in Latin. An
argument attacks a person's character rather than a person's ideas or policies.
Guilty by Association: The fallacy of
guilt by association
suggests that people's character can be judged by examining the character of their associates
Using Authority Instead of Evidence: This is a variation of begging the question.
Bandwagon Appeal: The
fallacy centers on the claim that everyone is doing something, so you should too.
Slippery Slope: The
fallacy is a scare tactic that suggest that if we allow one thing to happen, we will immediately be sliding down a slippery slope to disaster.
Creating False Needs: Emotional proofs, as you have learned, appeal to what people value and think they need.
Distorted Emotional Appeal: Irrelevant and unrelated emotional examples or stories that are unrelated to the subject are sometimes used to try to prove a point.
Ethics and Morality in Argument